It is also known as Aspergillosis in the field. Aspergillus is a fungal species that causing brooder pneumonia in poultry. There are some genera are available of Aspergillus species in the world.
The most common genera are Aspergillus fumigatus, flavus, nigar, nidulans, glaucus, candidus, etc. Aspergillus fumigatus is important for poultry which responsible for causing broader pneumonia in poultry.
Primarily, Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for causing broader pneumonia in poultry. However, other species like A.flavus, nidulans, terreus are Isolated from the brooder pneumonia but compared to less in number than A.fumigatus.
Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous, small with a smooth or spinose surface. They produce spore which sizes very 200- 400 nm. In the contaminated, poultry flocks hyphae are presented in the air excessively. It is saprophytic in nature
Brooder pneumonia caused by the A.femigatus. it has a widespread of the host in nature. The disease emerges during a period in chicks, quails, pheasants, turkeys, pigeons, parrots, etc.
Brooder pneumonia dominantly effects at the early age of poultry. The limited ages vary day old to 10 days due to the respiratory tract not starting functional fully during this time.
Sometimes, Brooder pneumonia develops as an outbreak form at chicks, but adult birds became affected occasionally.
There is no age limit to infect by the A.fumigatus causing broader pneumonia. Chicks belie 3 days of age highly susceptible age to induce infection.
Besides, A.fumigatus, other species like A.flavus is causing tracheal aspergillosis in poultry. Some Auther also observed that A.flavus caused pulmonary infection in chicks & quails.
Some factors are responsible for provoking broader pneumonia in the poultry flocks.
The feed contains higher moisture content (above 14%) which liable to provide an optimum growth environment for the A.fumigatus.
In this way, after I’m taking fungal contaminated feed, chicks consume more spores of A.fumigatus and after that chicks respiratory tract affected by it inducing broader pneumonia.
After initial, respiratory difficulty showing in broader pneumonia due to nodule form on the air sac of poultry as well as pulmonary congestion. Farmers are getting hurried up to use various respiratory drugs.
As a result, fungus A.fumigatus has more time growing in the internal organ like the kidney, visceral organs, with a fully respiratory system. The excess over medications gives to the optimum to the proliferation of A. Fumigatus.
Fungal contaminated any types of poultry litter materials more vulnerable to disseminate A.fumigatus to induce broader pneumonia in a poultry flock. Primary substances are chipping straw, rice polish, sand, by-products of bran, etc.
In this material, the fungus is less chance to growth due to dry in nature. besides, natural inhabitants of A. Fumigatus always, more crucial to provoke causing broader pneumonia in poultry.
For instance, sugar bagasse, wood shaving are common. Woodcutter a special type of insects that carries the Aspergillus fumigatus.
In the field such types of wood shaving mainly responsible for the brooder pneumonia and 100% accurate when an outbreak of the brooder pneumonia in this flock
It is another convenient route of transmission of the A.fumigatus to the field poultry. Infected breed parents may be associated with producing contaminated eggs thus helping infect to day-old chicks.
There are huge amount of research article is being published about the brooder pneumonia which transmits by the eggs.