ANTIBIOTICS FOR FOWL TYPHOID
Antibiotics for fowl typhoid, the selection of Antibiotics during fowl typhoid treatment is very difficult to choose. Fowl typhoid is a bacterial disease caused by gram-negative bacteria called salmonella gallinerum. It is affecting chicks to adults which causing fowl typhoid in poultry. Nevertheless, It is the most confusing disease related to other bacterial and viral diseases
Factors for choosing antibiotics on Fowl Typhoid.
antibiotics on fowl typhoid basically depend on some important factors. Before, treating typhoid fever in poultry, the factors can easily help you to treat fowl typhoid.
Resistance of Antibiotics
Because of fowl typhoid causal agent which called salmonella gallinerum can easily resistance to various antimicrobial agents.
There are 5 gene mutation genes are present on it. by which, salmonella gallinerum easily grow resistance to any antibiotics. Some typhoid cases are repeated back to back because of this reason.
Types of salmonella Gallinerum
There are two types, of salmonella gallinerum persists in the world, non-motile salmonella which inhabitants in the intestine and considered as normal intestinal flora and motile salmonella which is the most pathogenic form that invades the lung, spleen, liver, heart, air sac, and reproductive tract
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Fowl typhoid is a gram-negative bacteria. So, if we treat the disease we should mind that we must be used antibiotics which has the maximum coverage and lower resistance rate on gram-negative bacteria. Here the three antibiotics we can discuss.
It is semi-synthetics drugs originated from cephalosporin 3rd generations. It has great activity on salmonella gallinerum. According to field trial, it controls both types of the organism which caused fowl typhoid.
laying chicken from pullet to adult is more acceptable to salmonella gallinerum especially motile types and causing huge mortality. But the ceftriaxone honestly a safe drug to control mortality within a short period in the field. The recommended dose is 10-60 mg/kg body weight according to mortality.
Ceftriaxone is moderately expensive but has a satisfying result when stop mortality in layer birds.
See Also– Ceftriaxone in poultry
2. Ceftiofur sodium
Ceftiofur sodium is another drug derived from the cephalosporin 3rd generation. It is a good drug for the control of typhoid in poultry. Sometimes, fowl typhoid can repeat due to resistance to ceftriaxone and starting mortality in poultry. The main advantage of ceftiofur is lesser resistance to salmonella gallinerum compared to ceftriaxone. In some cases, a single shot can enough to grab typhoid fever in poultry.
The recommended dose of ceftiofur is started to 1-20 mg/ kg body weight. In the case of chicks, it is given subcutaneous and for adults by intramuscular.
See Also- Poultry cephalosporin
Florfenicol is an antibiotic that belongs to the family of chloramphenicol. It is a modern drug, especially for the poultry industry. because it is not available for human use and just for livestock use only. It is a bacteriostatic antibiotic but greater activity in gram-negative bacteria.
Although, Florfenicol is great on intestinal fowl typhoid lesser activity on motile types typhoid fever. The mechanism of resistance to florfenicol clearly unknown against motile type salmonella. The recommended dose varies from oral to the parental route. In the oral route, it can use as an oral solution 10-20% and does at 30-40 mg/ kg body weight. In parental route 10-20 mg/ kg body weight for the long-acting florfenicol 40% concentrate.
Sometimes Fowl typhoid confusing with intestinal coccidiosis and internal lesion the same as fowl typhoid.
for more Fowl typhoid lesion at
I have been using such drugs on the poultry because of gram-negative bacterial infection especially salmonella gallinerum quite hard to control in laying chicken in an oral route. Some time traditional antibiotics works well when salmonella gallinerium stays in the intestine in poultry. But, motile types of fowl typhoid infection cannot control by the oral route. that why the parenteral route of antibiotics must need to control. The above descriptive antibiotics have little information on books and the internet except for florfenicol. It is my personal experience.Ramzan, DVM, Poultry Veterinarian
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