Anticoccidial drugs Programs
Coccidiosis is the unique disease of poultry which have unique anticoccidial drugs & curable by preventive programms as well during outbreak in the field. Coccidiosis only disease thus have anticoccidial drugs & treat confidently without furthe investigation. Anticoccidial drugs programs mostly used as preventive & controll measures against coccidial population. This programs should needed due to poultry is the only natural host of coccidia & should repeatedly back if not using anticoccidial drugs programs in feed & drinking water.
There are three main Objectives of Anticoccidial drugs Programs In Poultry
A. To produce the maximum growth and feed efficiency with minimum costing & disease in broilers.
B. To develop persistence immunization for longer period of times in layers or breeders
C. Avoid Anticoccidal drug resistance in the field & reduce medication cost.
The choice of a product or program may depend on the season of the year or other factors which affect exposure to coccidal population.
The following several types of programs are practiced in the field:
A. Continuous Use of a Single Drug
Often, a single product will be used from day one to slaughter, or with a withdrawal period of 3–7 days. Most products are approved for use until slaughter eg diclazuril widhdrawal period o days & used until slaugther, but producers withdraw medication for economic or other reasons eg Butynorate widhdrawal period 28 days used in prevent turkey coccidiosis & should be withdrawal before slaughter due to heath safety.
B. Shuttle or Dual Programs
The use of one product in the starter feed and another in the grower feed for the purpose of prevention & control of coccidiosis is called a shuttle program in the United States and a dual program in other countries. this programs mostly used for industrial purposes where larger poultry feed production are operated.
Some programs might contain as many as 3 drugs, with 1 drug in the starter, another in grower, and yet another in the finisher for the purpose of prevention & control of coccidiosis in poultry ration. Application of anticoccidial drugs programs performed in all types of feeds eg pellets, mash, crumble.
Intensive use of the polyether ionophore drugs for many years produced strains of coccidia in the field that have reduced sensitivity to the ionophores thus creates greater chances to affect poultry continuosly.
It is a common practice to use another drug such as nicarbazin, diclazuril, or clopidol in either the starter or grower feed to bolster the anticoccidial control and take some pressure off of the ionophore to control coccidiosis in poultry.
In other cases, the order of these drugs is reversed for controlling & treating coccidiosis. The use of shuttle programs is thought to reduce buildup of drug resistance & reduce costing to control coccidiosis in the feild. Historically, a high percentage of producers use some type of shuttle program that are made by their adaptive approach.
C. Rotation of Products
It is considered sound management to make periodic changes in anticoccidial drug use during prevention & control coccidiosis programmsl. Rotation of drugs may improve productivity because of the build-up of isolates or species of coccidial population that have reduced sensitivity after products have been used for a long time in this programms.
Producers often notice a boost in productivity for a few months after a change of anticoccidial drugs at time of rotation period in the field.
The seasonal rotation of products is intended to correspond with the intrinsic properties of the drugs which used in this programm. Example Nicarbazin must be used principally in the cooler months of the year, which also corresponds with maximum coccidiosis challenge in the United States. In the summer months, coccidiosis challenge tends to be milder, so weaker anticoccidials are used in this rotation programm.
Ref: Diseases of poultry, 13th edition, Poultry diseases, 6th edition, Handbook book of veterinary pharmacology, 1st edition
Ramzan Ali, DVM, Poultry Consultant