Antimycoplasmal drugs defined as drugs which acts on mycoplasmal species that causing several diseases in poultry. Mycoplasmal is an unique organism which have absent cell wall. That’s why all antibiotics not act on mycoplasma spp except pleuromutilins & macrolides. Tiamulin is the unique drugs that act mycoplasma spp over 25 years.
Tiamulin (C32H51NO8S) defined as antimycoplasmal semi synthetics drugs derived from diterpene antimicrobials with a pleuromutilin chemical structure. Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate is the form of Tiamulin which is previously known as Tiamutin. Pleuromutilins is semi synthetic compounds that discover 1950.
Mode of action
The mechanism of tiamulin is bacteriostatic activity. Tiamulin inhibit protein synthesis of the organisms by targeting 50S (specifically 23r) ribosomal subunit & binding peptidyle transferase. Peptidyle transferase is an enzyme which is responsible for form peptide bond between amino acids.So organism cant survive without protein synthesis.
Tiamulin antibacterial properties are stronger than those of natural pleuromutilin due to extracted from Pleurotus mutilus (Fr.) Sacc. and Pleurotus Passeckerianus Pil.
Tiamulin is a bacteriostatic antibiotics. Its has antibacterial activity against Mycoplasma spp Gram positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci and obligate anaerobes is well known. Tiamulin effectively used in the treatment of airsacculitis which is primarily caused by Mycoplasma spp. Tiamulin is only considered as antimycoplasmal drugs due to increasing resistency to others microbs now days
Tiamulin is the only unique drugs which predominantly indicated for the use to treat mycoplasmal infections in poultry. Its moderately act against spirochaete, streptococcus, staphylococcus infection in poultry. But it has narrow spectrum against gram negative bacteria.
Susceptability of Tiamulin to various organisms compared to many researcher based on Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) indicates that’s effect of Tiamulin still unchanged since the introduction of products & susceptibility remained over 25 years.
Tiamulin have highest susceptibility in vitro to Mycoplasma strains ( M.galliseptocum, m. synoviae, M.iowae, M. meleagridis), spirochaetes ( Brachyspira hyedysenteriae,B. innocens,B.pilosicoli, B. intermedia)
Gram positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, staphylococcus, Clostridia, Arcanobacteriun but not active Enterobactericeae sush as salmonella, pasteurella, Escherichia coli, khebsiella, hemophillus,Fusobacterium, compylobacterium, bacteriods spp.
Tiamulin administration followed by three routes
In drinking water, 30 to 60 mg/kg body weight for 3 to 5 days.
Intramuscular doses @10 to 20 mg/kg body weight for up to 5 days.
By mixing Feed @160 to 320 mg/kg feed for poultry.
Aborption & Metabolism
Tiamulin is quickly absorbed at therapeutic levels from intestine. Basiclly tiamulin metabolized in liver & exreteed from the body by faeces & urine.
When administered with different drugs, tiamulin has been shown to have an enhanced activity with the tetracyclines & others bacteriostatics drugs e.g Florfenicol, Sulphonamide, macrolide etc.
Tiamulin have strong interaction not only, but also even death, when used with ionophore anticoccidials specially monensin, narasin, and salinomycin . If tiamulin is used at therapeutic levels, there are no effect seen and low doses do not interact with ionophores.
The nature of mechanism still unknown but caused by the preferential metabolism of tiamulin in the liver resulting build up of the ionophore leading to clinical signs of overdosage are reported.
Its shows a less or milder interaction, such as temporary growth depression, leg weakness, feed intake with maduramicin and semduramicin but is compatible with lasalocid.
By drinking water, There are form are available for water medicartion- 12.5% (liquid) & 45% ( granules form).
Medicated feed premix are available in 2%,10% and 80% strength
10% Tiamulin injectable form are also available.
Oral administration of Tiamulin up to 200 mg/kg body weight in mouse shows no effect on motility, cardiac convulsion, body temperature or pupil diameter.
There are no progestational, uterotropic, diuretic or anabolic effects at oral doses of up to 100 mg/kg body weight in rat. So Tiamulin safely used up to the level.
Tiamulin resistance against mycoplasmosis still not reported but cross resistance may occur to Erythromycin & Tylosin. It’s probably occur due to mutation in ribosomal L3 protein which responsible to higher flexibilityof paptidyl transferase centre region & ability to overcome
Period zero withdrawal period for eggs & 3 days for meats.