Tiamulin In Poultry
Tiamulin In Poultry, (C32H51NO8S) defined as antimycoplasmal semi synthetics drugs derived from diterpene antimicrobials with a pleuromutilin chemical structure. Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate is the form of Tiamulin which is previously known as Tiamulin. Pleuromutilins are semi-synthetic compounds that discover 1950.
Antimycoplasmal drugs defined as drugs that act on mycoplasmal species that causing several diseases in poultry. Mycoplasmal is a unique organism that has an absent cell wall. That’s why all antibiotics do not act on mycoplasma spp except pleuromutilins & macrolides. Tiamulin is a unique drug that acts mycoplasma spp for over 25 years.
Tiamulin antibacterial properties are stronger than those of natural pleuromutilin due to extracted from Pleurotus mutilus (Fr.) Sacc. and Pleurotus Passeckerianus Pil.
Mode of action
The mechanism of tiamulin is bacteriostatic activity. Tiamulin inhibits protein synthesis of the organisms by targeting 50S (specifically 23r) ribosomal subunit & binding peptidyl transferase. Peptidyl transferase is an enzyme which is responsible for form peptide bond between amino acids. So organism cant survive without protein synthesis.
Tiamulin is a bacteriostatic antibiotics. It has antibacterial activity against Mycoplasma spp Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci and obligate anaerobes are well known. Tiamulin effectively used in the treatment of airsacculitis which is primarily caused by Mycoplasma spp. Tiamulin is only considered as antimycoplasmal drugs due to increasing resistance to other microbes now days
Tiamulin is the only unique drug predominantly indicated for the use to treat mycoplasmal infections in poultry. It moderately acts against spirochaete, streptococcus, staphylococcus infection in poultry. But it has a narrow spectrum against gram-negative bacteria.
Susceptibility of Tiamulin to various organisms compared to many researchers based on Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) indicates that’s the effect of Tiamulin still unchanged since the introduction of products & susceptibility remained over 25 years.
Tiamulin have the highest susceptibility in vitro to Mycoplasma strains ( M.galliseptocum, M. synoviae, M.iowae, M. meleagridis), spirochaetes ( Brachyspira hyedysenteriae, B. innocens,B.pilosicoli, B. intermedia)
Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, staphylococcus, Clostridia, Arcanobacteriun but not active Enterobactericeae sush as salmonella, Pasteurella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Hemophilus, Fusobacterium, compylobacterium, bacteriods spp.
Tiamulin administration followed by three routes
In drinking water, 30 to 60 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 to 5 days.
Intramuscular doses @10 to 20 mg/kg body weight for up to 5 days.
By mixing Feed @160 to 320 mg/kg feed for poultry.
Aborption & Metabolism
Tiamulin is quickly absorbed in therapeutic levels from the intestine. Basically, tiamulin metabolized in the liver & excreted from the body by feces & urine.
When administered with different drugs, tiamulin has been shown to have an enhanced activity with the tetracyclines & other bacteriostatic drugs e.g Florfenicol, Sulphonamide, macrolide, etc.
Tiamulin has strong interaction not only, but also even death, when used with ionophore anticoccidials specially monensin, narasin, and salinomycin. If tiamulin is used at therapeutic levels, there are no effects seen and low doses do not interact with ionophores.
Toxicity With Coccidiostats
The nature of the mechanism still unknown but caused by the preferential metabolism of tiamulin in the liver resulting in a build-up of the ionophore leading to clinical signs of overdosage is reported.
It shows a less or milder interaction, such as temporary growth depression, leg weakness, feed intake with maduramicin and semduramicin but is compatible with lasalocid.
Treatment of Toxicity
Withdrawl feed which is contained anticoccidial or coccidiostat immediately. provide heavy dosages of vitamin B complex and molasses for 48 hours.
By drinking water, There are form are available for water medicartion- 12.5% (liquid) & 45% ( granules form).
Medicated feed premix are available in 2%,10% and 80% strength
10% Tiamulin injectable form is also available.
Oral administration of Tiamulin up to 200 mg/kg body weight in mouse shows no effect on motility, cardiac convulsion, body temperature, or pupil diameter.
There are no progestational, uterotropic, diuretic or anabolic effects at oral doses of up to 100 mg/kg body weight in rat. So Tiamulin safely used up to the level.
Tiamulin resistance against mycoplasmosis still not reported but cross-resistance may occur to Erythromycin & Tylosin. It probably occurs due to mutation in ribosomal L3 protein which responsible for the higher flexibility of peptidyl transferase center region & ability to overcome
Period zero withdrawal period for eggs & 3 days for meats.