Unique Characteristic of Mycoplasma
There are several types of antimicrobial groups specifically suppress the mycoplasma spp but never kill this bacteria due to intracellular location.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a normal inhabitant of the respiratory tract in poultry. It is showing clinical symptoms when it is triggered by other conditions such as virus, bacteria, environmental condition, dust, cold, heat, etc. the symptoms are in poultry–
- Coughing- Mild, Severe and life threating
- Nasal Discharge
- Swollen Head
- Swollen periorbital sinus with face
- Eye discharge
Classification of antimycoplasmal drugs is broadly divided into following categories according mode of action in poultry-
Tiamulin (C32H51NO8S) defined as antimycoplasmal semi synthetics drugs derived from diterpene antimicrobials with a pleuromutilin chemical structure. Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate is the form of Tiamulin which is previously known as Tiamulin. Pleuromutilin are semi-synthetic compounds that discover 1950.
|Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate||Dose|
|In drinking water||30 to 60 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 to 5 days.|
|Intramuscular injection||10 to 20 mg/kg body weight for up to 5 days.|
|By mixing Feed||160 to 320 mg/ton feed for poultry|
The sulfonamides are derivatives of p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and are structurally similar top-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an intermediate in the bacterial synthesis of folic acid. They behave as weak organic acids that are poorly water-soluble unless prepared as sodium salts. Concentrated solutions of the sodium
General Characteristics of Sulphonamide
- salts of most sulfonamides are very alkaline and may be corrosive.
- The solubility of a sulfonamide is not influenced by the presence of other sulfonamides in the solution.
Ref Handbook of veterinary pharmacology
- This is termed the law of independent solubility and is the primary reason for the use of sulfonamide mixtures in order to increase the combined total sulfonamide concentration to prevent renal precipitation and thus reduce toxicity.
- The Sulphonamide which acts as antimycoplasmal drugs is Trimethoprim, sulphadiazine, sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine, etc.
Besides two categories’, antimycoplasmal drugs are also classified following classification-
It is discovered from Streptomyces erythreus in the 1950s. it is an antibiotic with well-known classes which are bacteriostatic. Macrolide antibiotics are largely using on poultry due to their availability and cost-effectiveness against mycoplasma.
The common Macrolide in Poultry
Macrolide antibiotic is a potent protein inhibitor. the common macrolide which is used in poultry are-
|Tylosin||30-40 mg/kg, PO|
|Azithromycin||10-20 mg/Kg, Po|
it is another class of antibiotics that act as antimycoplasmal drugs that are majorly using in poultry. it is bactericidal in nature and inhibition of protein synthesis of bacteria and mycoplasma. it is well-tolerated on mycoplasma induce infection on CRD and CCRD in poultry and chickens. it is the Best Antibiotic for Mycoplasmosis, CRD, and CCRD
Common Aminoglycoside antibiotics
|Gentamycin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|Neomycin||30-40 mg/kg PO ( twice)|
|Amikacin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|Streptomycin||10-20 mg/kg, inject 24 hourly|
|Kanamycin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|Tobramycin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
It is a modest antibiotic for a mycoplasma-associated infection. when all classes of antibiotics are resistant to mycoplasmosis, CRD, and CCRD. It acts as a bactericidal and inhibits DNA with RNA synthesis of mycoplasma.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotic in Poultry
|Ciprofloxacin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|levofloxacin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|Marbofloxacin||5-10 mg/kg PO|
|Norfloxacin||10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)|
|Ofloxacin||10-30 mg/kg, PO|