Antimycoplasmal-drugs-in-poultry

Antimycoplasmal Drugs

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Antimycoplasmal

Antimycoplasmal drugs defined as drugs that act on mycoplasmal species that causing several diseases in poultry. Mycoplasma infection also called CRD in chicken and poultry.

Unique Characteristic of Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a unique organism that has an absent cell wall. That’s why all antibiotics do not act on mycoplasma spp except pleuromutilins & macrolides.

There are several types of antimicrobial groups specifically suppress the mycoplasma spp but never kill this bacteria due to intracellular location.

Common Symptoms

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a normal inhabitant of the respiratory tract in poultry. It is showing clinical symptoms when it is triggered by other conditions such as virus, bacteria, environmental condition, dust, cold, heat, etc. the symptoms are in poultry

  • Coughing- Mild, Severe and life threating
  • Sneezing
  • Nasal Discharge
  • Swollen Head
  • Swollen periorbital sinus with face
  • Eye discharge
  • Dyspnea

Classification

Classification of antimycoplasmal drugs is broadly divided into following categories according mode of action in poultry-

  • Pleuromutilin
  • Sulphonamide
  • Macrolide
  • Aminoglycoside
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • Tetracycline

Pleuromutilin

Tiamulin (C32H51NO8S) defined as antimycoplasmal semi synthetics drugs derived from diterpene antimicrobials with a pleuromutilin chemical structure. Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate is the form of Tiamulin which is previously known as Tiamulin. Pleuromutilin are semi-synthetic compounds that discover 1950.

Tiamulin hydrogen fumarateDose
In drinking water30 to 60 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 to 5 days.
Intramuscular injection10 to 20 mg/kg body weight for up to 5 days.
By mixing Feed160 to 320 mg/ton feed for poultry

Sulphonamide

The sulfonamides are derivatives of p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and are structurally similar top-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an intermediate in the bacterial synthesis of folic acid. They behave as weak organic acids that are poorly water-soluble unless prepared as sodium salts. Concentrated solutions of the sodium


General Characteristics of Sulphonamide

  • salts of most sulfonamides are very alkaline and may be corrosive.
  • The solubility of a sulfonamide is not influenced by the presence of other sulfonamides in the solution.

Ref Handbook of veterinary pharmacology

  • This is termed the law of independent solubility and is the primary reason for the use of sulfonamide mixtures in order to increase the combined total sulfonamide concentration to prevent renal precipitation and thus reduce toxicity.
  • The Sulphonamide which acts as antimycoplasmal drugs is Trimethoprim, sulphadiazine, sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine, etc.

Others Classification

Besides two categories’, antimycoplasmal drugs are also classified following classification-

  • chlortetracycline,
  • macrolide,
  • aminoglycoside,
  • Fluoroquinolone

Macrolide

It is discovered from Streptomyces erythreus in the 1950s. it is an antibiotic with well-known classes which are bacteriostatic. Macrolide antibiotics are largely using on poultry due to their availability and cost-effectiveness against mycoplasma.


The common Macrolide in Poultry

Macrolide antibiotic is a potent protein inhibitor. the common macrolide which is used in poultry are-

Macrolide Name Dose
Tylosin30-40 mg/kg, PO
Tylvalosin25mg/kg, PO
Erythromycin20-40 mg/PO
Azithromycin10-20 mg/Kg, Po
list of macrolide drugs against Mycoplasmosis

Aminoglycoside

it is another class of antibiotics that act as antimycoplasmal drugs that are majorly using in poultry. it is bactericidal in nature and inhibition of protein synthesis of bacteria and mycoplasma. it is well-tolerated on mycoplasma induce infection on CRD and CCRD in poultry and chickens. it is the Best Antibiotic for Mycoplasmosis, CRD, and CCRD

Common Aminoglycoside antibiotics

There are some aminoglycode antibiotic’s usually the most popular in poultry. These are

AminoglycosideDose
Gentamycin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Neomycin30-40 mg/kg PO ( twice)
Amikacin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Streptomycin10-20 mg/kg, inject 24 hourly
Kanamycin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Tobramycin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Antibiotic for Mycoplasmosis, CRD and CCRD

Fluoroquinolone

It is a modest antibiotic for a mycoplasma-associated infection. when all classes of antibiotics are resistant to mycoplasmosis, CRD, and CCRD. It acts as a bactericidal and inhibits DNA with RNA synthesis of mycoplasma.

Fluoroquinolone antibiotic in Poultry

Besides killed, others pathogens by Fluoroquinolone, it is also using in large quantity against mycoplasma. The most common Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are

Fluoroquinolone NameDose
Ciprofloxacin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
levofloxacin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Marbofloxacin5-10 mg/kg PO
Norfloxacin10-20 mg/kg, PO ( twice)
Ofloxacin10-30 mg/kg, PO

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