Gout in laying chicken
Gout is a common disease that affects laying chicken all year round. But it is sporadic in nature. Although infectious agents are responsible in some instances, all causes of gout in laying chicken is metabolic origins. Any abnormalities in a laying chicken ration cause gout in laying chicken.
There are lots of causes that are considered as the main culprit to induce gout in poultry. for details discussion which never possible due to it contains a huge chapter in this case. we are discussing this fact in a short as possible.
Feed Containing Higher Crude Protein
Feed containing more than 30% of protein (CP) causes uric acid production which in turn creates an excretory load on kidneys in poultry. In the meantime, the presence of sulfates decreases calcium resorption causing excessive calcium secretion through urine. This condition responsible for gout.
The high salt contents in Feed
The incidence of gout due to sodium such (sodium chloride) intoxication is seen in younger birds especially pullet when the sodium (Na+) levels exceed 0.4% in water and 0.8% in feed.
This generally happens when fish meal which containing crude protein 55-65%, is used in the diet (even with normal salt content) since the fish meal is rich in salt content. The total content of sodium chloride (NaCl) in feed should not exceed 0.3% in a normal feed.
Using Excessive use of sodium bicarbonate (HCOO-) when used to combat heat stress to improve eggshell quality in layers. This alkalinity of urine favors kidney stone formation in egg layer birds.
Overlapping dietary calcium (Ca2+) with low available phosphorus results in precipitation of calcium-sodium-urate crystals. High levels of vitamin D3 can also increase calcium absorption from the intestines which can favor the formation and deposition of urate crystals in the visceral organ of poultry.
laying chicken susceptible due to sodium intoxication is seen in younger birds especially in pullet when the sodium levels exceed 0.4% in water and 0.8% in feed. This normally happens when fish meal meat and bone meals are used in the diet (even with normal salt content) since the fish meal is rich in salt content (above 7%). It should be kept in mind that sodium chloride in feed should not exceed 0.3%.
Vitamine A deficiency
Long term vitamin A deficiency causes sloughing of tubular epithelium and subsequent blockade leading in the deposition of urates in the kidney. However, the incidence of gout due to vitamin A deficiency is rare under field conditions.
Prolonged water withdrawal
Prolong Water deprivation leads to the concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and water in the kidneys. Water deprivation especially in the summer when environmental temperature persists above 27 ° C, is dangerous. This can happen during transportation of laying chicks and birds or due to blockage of nipples, inadequate number of waterers but higher,
It leads to the concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and water in the kidneys. Water deprivation especially in the summer when environmental temperature persists above 27 ° C, is dangerous.
It can look at during transportation of laying chicks and birds or due to blockage of nipples, an inadequate number of waterers but the higher number of feeders, the extra height of water lines and in open flock system distance of waterers, overcrowding, water withholding for long durations during vaccination, etc.
The physical structure of water
Hard water with higher salt content is also a load on the kidney to excrete more uric acid due to laying chicken can nourish the body by the higher salting water.
Treatment depends on according causes which discuss in individual parts
- Should be supplied plenty of water, adequate drinkers and water pipe for egg layer chicken.
2. Feed containing higher in protein than the recommended level as per the age and breed should be avoided. Provide a low protein diet for 3-5 days based on need depending on the severity of gout in acute cases.
3. Use of urine acidifiers which decrease urate deposition on kidney and other visceral organs.: Following urine acidifiers may be given in water or feed.
a. Vinegar: 1-2 ml per liter water up to 72-120 hours until mortality goes to normal.
b. Potassium chloride: 1 gram/liter water for up to 24 hours.
c. Ammonium chloride: 2-2.5 kg /ton feed for 7 days.
d. Ammonium sulphate: 2-2.5 kg /ton feed for 7 days.
4. Ensure adequate levels of A, D3, K and B complex vitamins, and minerals.
5. Excessive use of sodium bicarbonate eg more than 2kg/ton should be avoided.
8. Allopurinol which available at 2.5-5% should be given 10-40mg in drinking water twice daily and never stop dosage until mortality zero/.
9. Febuxostat- For details click here
For the prevention of gout in poultry in laying chicken it is necessary to have:
1) Nutritionally and Scientifically provide balanced feed which containing proper
A) Calcium-phosphorus ration depending on the type of ration is produced.
b) Vitamin A, D3 and other essential vitamins and minerals are provided.
c) Required level of sodium, chloride and other ions should be maintained.
d) Conventional sources of protein should be also considered.
2) Determining the feed for mycotoxin content and if found positive change the feed or use suitable toxin binders to fix it.
3) Judicious use of drugs such as antibiotics especially sulpha drugs and anticoccidials to avoid kidney damage.
4) Fresh potable water accessible to birds all the time to promotes excrete uric acid quickly.
5) Copper sulfate should not be used for medication in all cases, if used should be used under the directions of a registered veterinarian or a poultry practitioner.