Gout In Poultry
Avian Gout is a metabolic disease of poultry. Almost all dominated species affected by this disease. The most common species are broiler, laying hen, duck, turkey, etc.
The broiler is the most susceptible to avian gout compared to other species. Avian gout has a number of etiology & casual agent which cause gout in poultry. The casual agents of poultry can be divided into two sources. In this part, we can discuss non-infectious casual agents.
B. Non- Infectious
Although, infectious causes playing a vital role in inducing avian gout in poultry. If it is not distinguished properly, farmers became survive a lot facing uncontrollable mortality through the life cycle of birds.
Poultry contains a balance of the amount of protein source either fish or animal origin.
If the feed contains a higher amount of protein, it is difficult to metabolize the amino acid as well as excreted from the body.
The by-products of a protein called uric acid. There are two types of amino acids responsible for creating uric acid in the body which is called purine & pyrimidine. If the supplied feeds contain excess protein, liver inducing uric acid from purine & pyrimidine.
At the recommended level of uric acid is not harmful to the organs of birds. It is hard to expel for the kidney to expel more uric acid from the body of the bird.
Moreover, excess uric acid is creating uric acid crystal which is more dangerous for a kidney. In all the case, it is damaging kidney cells. and birds became dying off slowly.
Nephritis or nephrosis due to over medication with sulphonamide as sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine and potentiated sulpha drugs like trimethoprim, etc. Some other drugs like gentamicin & nitrofurazone have to be more toxic for poultry kidneys.
Some fungus is responsible for the induction of gout in poultry. Among them, ochratoxin & Neosporin is important for gout in poultry.
Besides, all the mention the etiology of gout in poultry, Weather conditions largely contribute to form gout in poultry. It is a regular history to gout encountered south Asia, especially in Bangladesh, during early winter when temperature varying 30-33° C during day time and 20-25° C at night.
The most susceptible species in broiler birds. All chicks are affected in every flock and sometimes non-single flocks are left to infect gout in broiler chicks. It has been starting at 1 week and continue to 21- 22 days. But, in 2019, Avian gout is being changed and all ages of broiler birds became infected by the disease.
Mechanism of developing avian gout still unknown. The writer has been identifying the pathogenesis of gout in different ways. It might be a disturbing acid- buffer system of the body of birds.
In the day time, when the temperature keeps higher, the physiology system of birds changing to alkalosis in the urinary system.
But, at night when feel milder cold, kidney of the poultry unable to excrete uric acid due to lower ph.
Vitamin A deficiency involving deposit uric acid crystal in the kidney of poultry.
Copper sulfate causes water deprivation leading to deposit urate in kidney inducing gout in poultry.
Disinfectants like phenols & cresols if wrongly used cause residual toxicity leading urate deposit in the kidney to cause gout in poultry.