Types of poultry vaccines

Essential TYPES OF POULTRY VACCINES

TYPES OF POULTRY VACCINES

Types of poultry Vaccines against different diseases are to give protection against a number of viral or bacterial diseases. Many infectious diseases are ubiquitous worldwide and airborne pathogens are difficult to control even with very good biosecurity measures. For the poultry industry, the main practical method of controlling infectious diseases is vaccination. There are mainly two types of poultry vaccines are available in the market

Killed or inactivated the vaccine

Killed poultry vaccines consist of a high dose of inactivated antigens combined with an oil emulsion or aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. They must be injected in each individual bird It often antigens of two or more different disease organisms are included in one vaccine (multivalent vaccine).

They give high and prolonged levels of immunity, especially when used after ‘priming’ with live vaccines.

Handbook of Poultry diseases

General characteristics of killed or inactivated vaccine

  • There is no microbe replication; therefore, no tissue reaction outside that which is adjuvant dependent.
  • Combinations are less likely to interfere.
  • Generally slower onset of immunity
  • A large amount of antigen. No multiplication after administration.
  • More capable of eliciting an immune response in the face of an existing antibody.
  • Local immunity may be re-stimulated if used as a booster but poor if not a secondary response

Common Killed or Inactivated vaccines

Newcastle Killed vaccine

Avian Influenza Inactivated vaccines

Marek’s Killed vaccines

Mycoplasma gallisepticum inactivated the vaccine

Live vaccine

The live vaccine usually contains only one antigen and may be administered by spray (aerosol), via drinking water, eyedrop or by injection (optional). The antigen may either be the disease organism, which has been deliberately attenuated, i.e. made less virulent by some suitable means.

General characteristics of Live vaccine

  • Tissue reaction commonly referred to as a “vaccine reaction” is possible and frequently visible in a variety of tissues.
  • The live poultry vaccine contains a smaller quantity of antigen. Vaccination response relies on multiplication within the bird.
  • It Can be mass administered—drinking water, spray.
  •  There is no need to add any Adjuvant in poultry live vaccines.
  • Susceptible to existing antibody present in the bird.
  • In immune bird, a booster vaccination is ineffective
  • Local immunity stimulated (i.e., trachea or gut).
  • The danger of vaccine contamination (e.g., egg drop syndrome, reticuloendotheliosis virus).
  • Relatively limited combinations—due to interference of multiple microbes given at the same time (e.g., infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease virus, and laryngotracheitis).
  • Live vaccines may stimulate the production of local or mucosal immunity as well as general (systemic) immunity

Common Live vaccines

Newcastle disease live vaccine

Infectious Bursal disease

Infectious bronchitis disease

Salmonella live vaccine

A smaller amount of antigen is required in live vaccines because the organism will multiply rapidly in the target organ(s). for instance, Respiratory tract for viruses-RT and IB, the intestine -AE, the bursa of Fabricius- IBD

Handbook of Poultry Diseases

Common Poultry vaccine Risk

Although Multiplication of the vaccine organism in vaccinated birds is important and excretion may be helpful in producing a good flock immunity by the bird to bird transmission.

The spread of Poultry Diseases

Cycling of vaccine virus is advantageous in achieving good flock immunity to IBD, ND, and IB. However, cycling is undesirable with TRT or ILT. Lateral spread of vaccine virus can be very undesirable on multiage sites. some poultry diseases are spread and take shed into the poultry farm are following

Avian Encephalopathy (AE) And Infectious Bronchitis (IB)

For example, if AE or IB H52 strain spread into older, unvaccinated groups of birds inlay, the vaccine itself may then cause production problems.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination

birds show a reaction after the administration of the live vaccines, for example, mild coughing or ‘snicking’ after NDV vaccination, indicating that the vaccine has ‘taken’. Unless concurrent bacterial or mycoplasma challenge is present this mild reaction disappears in a few day’s time and is not a cause for concern.

Ramzan, DVM,

Poultry Veterinarian

Related Post

Newcastle disease

References

  • Avian medicine and surgery in practice companion and aviary birds-Doneley Bob – CRC Press LLC 2016
  • Diseases of poultry 12th Edition
  • Essentials of Avian Medicine and Surgery-Brian Coles – Wiley-Blackwell 2007
  • Handbook of Foodborne Diseases Dongyou Liu-CRC Press 2019
  • Handbook on Poultry Diseases 2nd Edition
  • Poultry Diseases 6th Edition