Ceftriaxone in poultry

Ceftriaxone In Poultry

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Ceftriaxone In Poultry

Ceftriaxone in poultry is an antibiotic, a semisynthetic cephalosporin of the third generation. It is bactericidal against a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria but limited active on Gram-positive and by inhibiting the mucopeptide synthesis in the bacterial cell wall in poultry.

General characteristics

  • the substance penetrates into almost all body tissues, including the cerebrospinal fluid by the parenteral administration
  • It disseminates primarily into extracellular water, showing bind to   binding to albumin and in normal adults,
  • for treating a wide spectrum of pathogens ceftriaxone should be combined with an appropriate antimicrobial agent with additional anaerobic coverage
  • its longer duration of action (half-life -t½ 8 hr), permitting once, or at the most twice-daily dosing.
  • Penetration into CSF is good and
  • elimination occurs equally in urine and bile.

Mechanism of action

Ceftriaxone act as a bactericidal activity that results from the inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
It has a high degree of stability in the presence of lactamases produced by Gram-negative
and Gram-positive bacteria.

It showing synergistic effects of ceftriaxone and aminoglycosides on certain Gram-negative bacteria that have been noted in vitro.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

according to a human study,  minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of organisms (MIC90s) of ceftriaxone for most organisms is extremely low when compared with attainable serum concentrations-

  • Klebsiella species- (MIC90 = 0.1 µg/ml),
  •  Proteus species- (MIC90 = 0.2 µg/ml),
  •  Enterobacter species- (MIC90 = 0.3 µg/ml),
  • Serratia species- (MIC90 = 0.4 µg/ml),
  •  Streptococcus agalactiae- (MIC90 = 0.06 µg/ml)
  • Staphylococcus aureus (β-lactamase producers) (MIC90 = 2 µg/ml)

Microbiology

It has a great microbial sprectrum especially gram negative bacteria. Poultry population is more vulnerable to gram negative bacterial infection which cause by the wide range bacteria family.Commonly Gram positive aerobes susceptible species

  • Streptococcus pyogenes*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Streptococcus bovis

Gram-positive anaerobes

Peptococcus niger
Peptostreptococcus
spp.

Gram-negative aerobes

  • Salmonella gallinerium
  • Salmonella pullorum
  • Pasturella multicida
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticaum
  • Citrobacter koseri1
  • Escherichia coli*1
  • Haemophilus influenzae*
  • Haemophilus parainfluenzae*
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae* 1
  • Klebsiella oxytoca* 1
  • Moraxella catarrhalis*
  • Morganella morganii1
  • Neisseria meningitidis*
  • Proteus mirabilis*1
  • Proteus vulgaris1
  • Providencia spp.1
  • Salmonella spp.1
  • Serratia spp.1
  • Shigella spp

Gram-positive aerobes

  • Staphylococcus epidermidis*$ (MSSE)

Gram-negative aerobes

  • Citrobacter freundii 1
  • Enterobacter spp. 1,3
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa $ 2
  • Inherently resistant species

Gram-positive aerobes

  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Staphylococcus aureus MRSA
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis MRSE

Gram-positive anaerobes

Clostridium difficile

Gram-negative aerobes

  • Acinetobacter spp.
  • Achromobacter spp.
  • Aeromonas spp.
  • Alcaligenes spp.
  • Flavobacterium spp.
  • Legionella gormanii

Gram-negative anaerobes

Bacteroides spp.

Others

  • Chlamydia spp.
  • Chlamydophila spp.
  • Mycobacterium spp.
  • Mycoplasma spp.
  • Rickettsia spp.
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum

Indication

  • Para-typhoid infection

Dosages

  • For the pullorum diseases which only occurred at the early stages of chicks, ceftriaxone is given at 0.5-1mg/gram body weight. Broadly, 5-10 mg/kg enough to control pullorum disease intramuscularly in poultry.
  • For the fowl typhoid and cholera, which is affected mainly in adult birds, it gives at 10-50mg/kg body weight according to the number of mortality.

I have been practicing up to 60mg/kg body weight where mortality reach to 80-90 birds/day in both cases called fowl typhoid and fowl cholera.

Ramzan, DVM, poultry Veterinarian

Author observation

There is no exact information about the application of the ceftriaxone on books and the internet. I have been practicing poultry medicine in my area where all types of poultry diseases are more prevalence all year round. In 2016, I have been applied ceftriaxone on fowl typhoid and got tremendous results.

The image has been collected from 34 weeks laying hen which affected by the fowl typhoid caused by motile type salmonella gallinerum recently. The predominated site of infection is liver, spleen and egg follicles showing on images. The case has been recovered after application of ceftriaxone at 10mg/kg bodyweight

but I have struggled to apply it due to the dose of ceftriaxone not mention in veterinary pharmacology books in the field of poultry. Therefore, I used my third sense and dosing started from 10 mg/kg body weight.

At present, it has been using all over Bangladesh according to the dose I have already mentioned. Since then. I have been trying to use all types of gram-negative bacteria and getting a satisfying result on every gram-negative bacterial infection. It is time to include the details of ceftriaxone in veterinary pharmacology books. By which lots of veterinary students and professionals enhance their skills and knowledge.

Incompatibilities

It is not compatible with calcium-containing solutions such as Hartmann’s solution and Ringer’s solution.
According to literature reports, ceftriaxone is not compatible with amsacrine, vancomycin, fluconazole,
aminoglycosides, and labetalol.

Shelf life

  • Unopened: 2 years.
  • Opened & after reconstitution:

Chemical and physical in-use stability has been showing for 24 hours at 2 o C to 8oC.
From microbiological findings, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, the unused storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would not be longer than 24 hours at 2-9 C, otherwise, any unused portion must be discarded.

User Manual

  • Ceftriaxone .5-2gram powder for solution for injection or infusion should be dissolved in 3.5 ml of 1 % w/v lidocaine hydrochloride injection solution.
  • Ceftriaxone should not be mixed in the same syringe with any medicinal product other than 1% w/lidocaine hydrochloride solution (for intramuscular injection only).
  • The reconstituted solution should be shaken up to 60 seconds to ensure complete dissolution of ceftriaxone. When reconstructing for intramuscular or intravenous injection, the white to yellowish crystalline powder gives a pale yellow to the amber solution.

Ramzan, DVM, Poultry Veterinarian

Related Post

Cephalosporin in poultry

References

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5th-edition

ceftriaxone-tyrol-pharma-article-29-referral-annex-i-ii-iii_en

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