Chickens with Coccidiosis

Chickens with Coccidiosis-Symptoms And Treatment

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What is Chickens with Coccidiosis?

Chickens with Coccidiosis is defined as the disease which is associated with Coccidiosis that is caused by the Eimeria species under the family of Eimeriidae and order Eucoccidioridae in chickens. Chicken is infected with Coccidiosis in various factors on the farm.it is the most important disease in chicken.

Etiology

According to site of Infection of the intestinal tract of chickens, the etiology of Coccidiosis in chickens are divided into two classes-

Caecal Coccidiosis

It is caused by the Eimeria tenella which is mainly infected with the caecum of chickens. It causes blood stool/poo/feces and induce heavy mortality in peracute Coccidiosis in Chicken.

Intestinal Coccidiosis In Chicken

This form of Coccidiosis is caused by the several species Eimeria which are-

Name Sites of infection
E. AcervulinaDuodenum
E. MaximaIlium
E. BrunettiColon
E. PraecoxDuodenum
E. HaganiThe anterior part of the Small intestine
E. MitisSmall intestine
E.mivatiSmall intestine
list of eimeria spp in chicken


Identification of Eimeria spp in chickens

The species of Eimeria have been identified on some basic criteria which are-

Size and shape  of Oocyst

Schizonts size

Site of multiplication in the intestinal tract

Gross lesion


Time required of sporulation

Life Cycle

Broadly life cycle of Coccidiosis in chicken is divided in two segments-

  • Asexual life cycle
  • Sexual reproduction

Asexual life cycle

The life cycle of coccidiosis in chickens by Asexual reproduction started from Ocyst from the infected host by feces. There are two types OOcycst involved in this process.

  • Unsporoluted Oocys
  • Sporulated Oocyst
Unsporoluted Oocyst

It considered fresh Ocyst which newly come out in the environment from the intestine of poultry. It’s also called Oocyst. The most common characteristics are covering by thick walls, high resistance to temperature & disinfectant.

Sporulated Oocyst

A cyst-like thick wall round structure contains an encysted zygote produced from sporoblast from which sporozoite develop by Eimeria protozoan species. The process of formation sporocyst called sporolution. This sporocyst called sporulated ocyst. Sporolated ocyst called infective stages of Eimeria species. Meosis cell division is present this process.

Flow Chart of Life cycle

Severals factors involved for sporulation like poultry litter condition, temperature, moisture & Oxygen etc. Sporulation take place outside the host.

Sporulated Ocyst crushed by gizzard ventricles &  Release sporoluted ocyst in the intestine in the poultry.

Sporulated Oocyst convert four sporocyst & each contain two sporozoites  by the action of chemotripsin & bile salt.

Release million of sporozoites in lumen of inrestine by process of  Excystation in asexual reproduction.

The motile sporozoites into the enterocytes of small intestine then migrate to their respective sites of development

This results sporozoites attachment to host cell receptors by gliding motility. Attachment can initiate continuous reproduce sporozoites.

Then Enter into the epithelial cells of epithelium Or Intraepithelial cells lymphocyts intestine of poultry. the sporozoites develop into Tropozoites by asexual reproduction

Convert Schizont afetr several rounds of asexual reproduction of schizont in the inrestine.This results in many nuclei developing within the schizont by asexual reproduction . Each nucleus develops into a merozoite which initiate sexual reproduction.schizonts rupture, million of merozoites are released intestine. 

Sexual reproduction

Microgametocytes produce microgametes that burst from the infected cells, enter into the cells containing macrogametes, and fertilized them. As a result zygotes comes out from impermeable cyst wall around themself & finally Ocyst are formed.

These gametes fuse to form an oocyst &  Ocyst rupture from host cells which is then released in its non-infectious, unsporulated form through the faeces of the host & excrete by faeces in the environmrnt. 

Pathology

Pathology of chicken Coccidiosis in the chicken is classically explained according to types of Infection. This is two types of Infection Which are

  • Intestinal Coccidiosis
Caecal Coccidiosis

The caecum may be filled with blood-tinged contents in case of caecal Coccidiosis in chicken. In some cases, the caecal wall shows patchy or diffuse hemorrhage.

There are may be cheesy cores in congested caeca in chronic Coccidiosis in chicken.

Intestinal Coccidiosis

In the case of chicken Intestinal Coccidiosis hemorrhagic, pinpoint spots are seen in various parts of the small intestine and large intestine also in some cases.

In some cases, the hemorrhagic enteritis in chicken may be diffuse.

In chronic Coccidiosis with chicken, white pinpoint to pinhead-sized focci in small to large number various parts of intestinal Coccidiosis.

The intestinal wall in Coccidiosis with chicken heavily infected cases became thickened, flabby and dilated.

chickens with coccidiosis symptoms

Symptoms of Chicken with Coccidiosis are classified by the two major Infection-

Caecal Coccidiosis Symptoms

It is generally affects chicks below 10 weeks of age with maximum incidence in 4 to 8 week old chicks. But Chicks below 2 weeks rarely seen.

The most common caecal Coccidiosis in chicks are-

Depression

Loss appetite

Dropping wings

Often but not always bloody diarrheas’

Ceca full with blood in acute coccidiosis
extensive hemorrhage in cecum due to rapid multiplication of 2nd generation schizonts at subepithelial by Eimeria tenella in 14 days broiler birds

Mortality go as high as 50%

Intestinal Coccidiosis Symptoms

The most common first signs of chicken Intestinal Coccidiosis symptoms to attract attention in such cases are-

Emaciation

Poor Growth

Paleness of mucus membranes

Emeria acervulina infection in poultry
Partial paralysis by Emeria acervulina causing intestinal coccidiosis in 24 days broiler birds

Loss of yellowish color of shank.

Poor egg production

Undigested and brown color feces are common symptoms

intestinal coccidiosis with chickens
Undigested feces intestinal coccidiosis with chickens

Sometimes diarrhoea but the presence of blood in the faeces is not very common.

Others Species Symptoms

Chicken with Coccidiosis is more chronic with mortality around 8 to 10 percent in the case of E. Acervulina Infection.

Birds of 1.5 month to 4 months of age affected by the E. necartrix.

Eimeria mitis produces disease both in growers as well as adults.

Eimeria mivati produces relatively acute type of disease both in the growers and adults.

Diagnosis

1. The presences of characteristics gross lesion are great diagnostic value in chickens with Coccidiosis

2. Examination of faecal contents or scraping from affected mucosa of the intestine shows oval, thik walled Oocyst, large round multikaryotic shizonts, gametocytes, etc , in significant numbers.

how to treat chickens with coccidiosis?

Treatment for Chickens with coccidiosis depends on types of drugs, mode of action, dose, and stages of Eimeria spp. It is a common question on how to treat chickens with coccidiosis?

The common medicine is using in chickens with Coccidiosis are into two categories

  • Drugs using in Drinking Water
  • Drugs Using In Feed
Drinking Water medication

The common drugs for chickens with coccidiosis treatment using in water is given in this table below-

Name Of DrugsDosages
Ethanamizuril (EZL)5-9 mg/kg body weight (KBW), PO
Diclazuril5-10 mg/kg PO, in feed .8-.1.2 mg/kg.
Toltrazuril7-100 mg/kg for 48 hours acutely, the dose may half at prevention
Sulphaclozine sodium50 mg/ kg/ day upto 90mg/kg
Amprolium (Corid)10-30 mg/kg, PO,
Medicine for coccidiosis in chickens with dose

Feed Grade Drugs

The common drugs for chickens with coccidiosis treatment using in feed is given in this table below-

Drugs Name Dose (PPM, MG)
Semduramycin20-25
Monensin70-125, safety margin 180
Narasin50-60, safety margin 70-80
Maduramycin5-15 mg/kg
Salinomycin4-66 gm/ton
Lasalocid75-125 gm/ton
drugs for coccidiosis in chicken


Drugs using feed grade has remarkable role in preventing coccidiosis in chickens.

ANCIENT TREATMENT

How coccidiosis was treated in 1980 and early days there were some scienfic results as most of vets in early 1980 were treating coccidiosis with commercial grade hydrochloric acid

Prevention of Coccidiosis by hydrochloric acid (HCL) at 1 ml per litre of drinking water from 15 to 35 days.

Treatment for chickens Coccidiosis using hydrochloric acid at 5ml per litre for 5 days.

how to Control chickens with coccidiosis?

coccidiosis in chicken is controlled by chemicals, ionophores vaccines coccidiostats and coccidiocidals, and vaccines

Chemicals Method

This method has been using in rotationally with ionophores, vaccines, coccidiostats, and coccidiocidals again which is explained below-

The first controlled method gives chemicals like diclazuril or clopidol or robenidine in starter diet and monensin or salinomycin or maduramycin in the finisher.

the second-give chemical in rotation eg diclazuril for two batches and robenidine for 2 batches in chicken

3rd -give vaccines for 2 batches in chicken

4th -chemicals in starter and change to monovalent and bivalent ionophores in rotation like salinomycin monensin maduramycin are monovalent while lasolacied is bivalent in chicken

5th coccidiosis vaccines followed with coccidiostats in chicken

Controlling By Shuttle Program

in the United States and the United Kingdom shuttle program is more popular. they don’t change the litter in chicken. coccidiostat without immunity is preferred like diclazuril and monensin or salinomycin in layers of chicken.

Robendine is preferred because it gives immunity to nicarbazine discouraged in summer as it causes metabolic toxicity maduramycein causes vitamin a def and increases water intake so it may lead to chronic coccidiosis with chickens

By controlling Synthetic drugs

chemicals are synthetic drugs which is using on coccidiosis with chicken acting on sporozoites at intracellular level while ionophores hampers iron and sodium (Na) transport in coccidia cell so change in molecules also change mode of action hence better performance

As cocci develops at 30 pc moisture with a temp of 25 degrees at 70 pc RH shed conditions with poor ventilation are favorable to its use of preventive coccidiostats plus coccicidals simultaneously leads to chronic cocci more dangerous than acute cocci use of turmeric garlic alum along with coccidial is beneficial

By Anticoccidial drugs

the most anticoccidial drugs are Sulphur drugs such as sulphadimidine, sulphaquinoxaline, sulphadiazine, sulphaclozine sodium, etc. choice of medicines is based on breed type of rearing and environment.

Other  triazinetrione derivative are Toltrazuril, Diclazuril, ponazuril, Ehanamizuril etc.

Comparative efficacy of Anticoccidial drugs

Sulfa drugs are more useful than amprolium. amprolium has recently acquired resistance. sulfa drugs should be used fr 5 days while amprolium fr 7 days.

toltrazuril is the most recent coccicidal which cleanses all oocysts from the intestine within 2 days when given fr 2 days @ 80 gms 150 k body wt of birds. prolong use of amprolium leads to b1 def and lameness in birds

In conclusion- conclusion to the best of my knowledge cryostat or diclazuril followed by monensin is better fr broilers only robendine fr layers up to 10 weeks robindine follows vaccines against cocci in breeders.

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RAMZAN ALI ,DVM

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