Feed terms and ingredient classification

Classification of Poultry feed ingredients

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Classification of Poultry feed ingredients

Classification of Poultry feed ingredients is the essential part of the feed formulation in Poultry. Without knowing the Classification of Poultry feed ingredients, it is impossible for making Poultry diets for all species. According to the source of poultry feed ingredients, the classification of Poultry feed ingredients are classified into five categories

  • 1. Energy sources
  • 2. Fats sources
  • 3. Protein sources
  • 4. Vitamins sources
  • 5. Mineral sources

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1. Energy sources ingredients

The ingredients which are acts as energy in Poultry feed formulation and originated  from energy sources

energy sources ingredients are further divided into four classes-

a). Cereal grains

cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. The term may also refer to the resulting grain itself. It is includes

  • Maize
  • Wheat
  • Bajra
  • Wheat
  • Sorghum
  • oat


b) Grain by-products

grain by-products” is a very broad vague term used by feed companies that allows them to substitute feedstuffs based on market availability and price fluctuations

  • Rice bran
  • Wheat bran
  • deoiled rice polish
  • Molasses
  • Groundnut leaf
  • Sal seed meal

c) Industrial by-products

  • DDGS (Dried distillers grains with solubles)

d) Miscellaneous Materials

2. Protein sources

While cereal grains provide 60–70% of dietary energy for poultry, protein sources also supply a considerable amount of energy. There are plant and animal protein sources.

a) Plant protein sources

Although the energy value of various plant protein sources is not as high as the cereal or root and tuber energy ingredient source, they have a considerable amount of energy that helps in furnishing the required energy needed for optimum poultry performance and cost reduction.

  • soybean meal
  • canola meal
  • cottonseed meal
  • sunflower meal
  • peas and lupin
  • groundnut cake
  • Coconut meal
  • Sesame meal
  • Mustard cake
  • Linseed meal
  • Yeast
  • penicillium
  • maize Gluten
  • Guas meal



4. Animal protein sources

Although they are major sources of protein, they also contain considerable amounts of energy. Examples include-

  • meat meal
  • fish meal
  • blood meal
  • feather meal
  • poultry by-product
  • Silkworm pupae meal
  • Feather meal
  • meat and bone meal
  • poultry by-product

Minerals Supplements

  • limestone
  • salt
  • Oyster shell
  • shell grit
  • Sulfur
  • ferrous sulfate
  • Mg-salt
  • Bone Meal

Vitamin supplements

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B complex
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin k
  • Vitamin H
Essential poultry feed Ingredients

Essential poultry feed ingredients define the ingredients which are using in poultry feed on a regular basis and it impossible to make poultry feed. the essential items are cost-effective, available in the region, and reliable nutritive composition. the most common item are Maize, soybean meal, protein concentrate, Rice polish, wheat, bajra, sunflower meal, mustard cake, limestone, salt, oil, etc.


Corn, also called maize, was first grown in America by the American-Indians. According to the physical appearance of the kernel, there are seven types of corn worldwide, including flint, flour, dent, pop, sweet, waxy, and pod. Nowadays, most of the grown corn is the hybrid, produced by crossing inbred lines through several generations.


Wheat is the premier source of energy for poultry diets. Wheat has been classified into hard and soft varieties, depending on gluten content. Soft varieties are commonly used as the main ingredients in poultry feeds.


In many characteristics, milo is almost comparable to corn in feeding value. There seem to be more varietal differences with sorghum, although on average, its energy value will be slightly less than that of corn.


The main characteristics are high fiber, low bulk density, and low metabolizable energy. Bran is, however, quite high in protein, and amino acid profile is comparable to that seen in whole wheat. Bran has been claimed to have
a growth-promoting effect for birds which is not directly related to any contribution of fiber to the diet.


The polishings are very high in fat content and low in fiber while the true bran is low in fat and high in fiber. The
proportions of polishings and true bran in a mixed product will therefore have a major effect on its nutritive value.


Barley is a cereal with medium content of both energy and protein, and while it can be used in poultry feeds, most is used in swine diets.

Young birds are less able to digest barley, al thoughthis may be a consequence of ß-glucan content,and so this effect may relate to variety and growing conditions. The protein content of barley is usually around 11 – 12%, although muchhigher levels to 14 – 16% are sometimes encoun-tered.


Rice bran refers to the mixture of polishings andbran. The composition of any sample of mixedrice bran can be calculated based on levels offat vs fiber.


Soybean meal has become the worldwide standard against which other protein sources are compared. Its amino acid profile is excellent for most types of poultry, and when combined with corn or sorghum, methionine is usually the only limiting amino acid.


Soybeans provide an excellent source of both energy and protein for poultry. As with any ingredient, their usage rate depends upon economics, although in the case of soybeans such economics relate to the relative price of
soybean meal and of supplemental fats. Soybeans contain about 38% crude protein, and around 20% oil.


In the past, meat meals referred only to soft tissue products, while meat and bone meals also contained variable quantities of bone. Today, meat meal most commonly refers to animal by-products with bone where protein level
is around 50% and calcium and phosphorus are at 8% and 4% respectively.


Fish meal is usually an excellent source of essential amino acids, while the energy level is largely dependent upon residual oil content. Menhaden and anchovy are the main fish species used for meal manufacture, with
lesser quantities of herring meal produced in Europe.


Palm oil production is now only second to soybean oil in world production. Palm oil is produced from the pulpy flesh of the fruit, while smaller quantities of palm kernel oil are extracted from the small nuts held within the body of the fruit.


Animal husbendary and nutrition


Commercial poultry nutrition

Staphen leeson, Ph.d

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