Egg Follicle Diseases
Egg follicles are the most significant site of infection in laying poultry. It contains lots of nutrients that provide an optimum environment for organisms. It is an important issue to protect the egg follicles but it can not possibly sometimes. Because all types of organisms possibly grow in the egg follicles of poultry and causing several diseases in the egg-laying poultry.
some diseases are economically devastating. due to if the egg follicles are damaged by the infection. laying chicken cannot able to lay their eggs or completely ceased. Therefore, farmers are being lost their profitability by this disease. some diseases are discussed below-
There are primarily two types of Avian Influenza infections are generally occurred in poultry. First, one is High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), which is caused by the H5N1 strain. The second One is Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI), which is caused by the H9N1 strain.
Clinical signs or gross findings are not the same in the egg follicles in both cases. But sometimes both types of infections occurred coincidently.
In High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), the most common postmortem findings are called hemorrhagic egg peritonitis at the egg follicles in egg-laying poultry. not only single egg follicles are affected bit also multiple follicles became affected. Others gross findings are
atresia of egg follicles, egg yolk peritonitis, egg bindings is occasionally seen.
Newcastle disease is a viral disease caused by Newcastle disease virus under the family of paramyxoviridae. It is considered as the most economical disease in poultry. Newcastle Disease causes huge mortality and production losses throughout the world.
Most common clinical signs at follicles are
Blood vessels highly congested & hemorrhage in egg follicles in Newcastle Disease.
Fowl Typhoid caused by salmonella gallinerum is a gram-negative bacteria. There are two types of salmonella gallinerum infection are seen in the field.
In the case of, Non-motile type salmonella gallinerum which is naturally inhabitant of the intestine of poultry causing salpingitis in poultry. The common gross finding is egg binding in the uterus due to soft shell eggs.
There is a simple mechanism of egg bindings is due to intestinal infection of the poultry leading to an off feed of laying chicken.that is why a sufficient amount of calcium & other nutrients do not reach the uterus of the poultry.
usually birds die out at night time 2-3 types but it reaches up to 3-5%.
In the case of motile, salmonella gallinerum, which is rapidly moving through various intestinal organs along with egg follicles.
when it is growing on the surface of egg follicles, they can easily intake nutrients from it that id why egg follicle is shrunken day by day.
The common clinical sign is egg follicles like jackfruit, damaged, atresia without the congestion of blood vessels.
Necrotic enteritis is a bacterial disease caused by clostridium perfringenes which are gram-positive & facultative anaerobic organisms.
Egg follicles showing severely yellow color, the same mechanism followed as liver & intestine in Necrotic enteritis.
Heat Stress is an important cause of mortality in tropical countries like Bangladesh and India. It comes from two origin- infectious causes and environmental factors.
there is much confusion that, maximum people in the world mean that heat stress arising from environmental origin. It is not actually true at all. poultry can be stressed by heat either arise from diseases agent or environmental.
There some diseases causing the higher introduction of temperature in the poultry. for instance Avian Influenza. NDV, Fowl Cholera, Fowl Typhoid, IBD, Avian Pox, etc.
Lesion In egg follicles more less the same in cases. Although, Every disease has the characteristics of necropsy signs. But, Unique gross signs at egg follicles at heat stress is the same.
there are no external changes in shape, size and texture in egg follicles in moderate except blood vessels are highly congested. heat stress starting at 27°C by showing open beak respiration and pantings.
if it would not sufficient oxygen from the environment, there is a severe rising carbon-di-oxide in the body tissue. Therefore, the rupture of blood vessels is seen in the egg follicle of poultry.
The writter of thie articles
The articles have been published after the recover of the diseases that respond to anti-microbial and some viral cases birds have been culled in an uncontrollable situation.