Eimeria acervulina In Poultry
Eimeria acervulina defined as is the species of Eimeria that causing intestinal coccidiosis. It is also the most common species responsible for causing intestinal coccidiosis in Chicken. It is a common intestinal inhabitant of poultry. Clinical signs are easily identified with the naked eye and always find in poultry feces. treatment is very simple with the application of a single or combination of anticoccidial drugs.
Eimeria acervulina causing intestinal coccidiosis in poultry. In daily poultry practice, it is found from the day old to adult birds. therefore, there are no ages limit of the Eimeria acervulina in poultry
Eimeria acervlunia infection gets occurred from 01- 07 days in earlier ages but remains found in 120 weeks layer hens with necrotic enteritis according to field observation.
Oocyst of Eimeria acervulina Oocysts are ovoid and often show thinning of the shell at the small end. The average size of oocysts is 18.3 × 14.6 µm, but the range is 17.7–20.2 × 13.7–16.3 µm.
The severity of Eimeria acervulina infection may vary with the isolate, the number of oocysts ingested, and the immune state of the bird. Ingestion of 103, 104, 105, or 106 oocysts by young white rock chicks resulted in mild to severe coccidiosis, with lesion scores ranging from 1.1 (103 oocysts) to 4.0 (106 oocysts). The reduction in the rate of weight gain was also proportional to the infective dose.
Duodenum & later part of intestine mixed with other species’ most predominant site of infection of Eimeria acervulina in broiler & layer chicken.
Excessive Litter ingestion is a common sign but the exact mechanism of it clearly unknown of Eimeria acervulina in poultry.
Feed spilling is the most common syndrome in every case. Although other causes like increase particle size, sudden onset feed changing, supplied grower feed at early ages, all issues contribute to increasing acidic environment leading to Emeria acervulina infection in poultry
Feces unevenly segregated from its normal structure due to intestinal corrugation by Eimeria Acervulina.
Watery and mucoid droppings may be seen as early as 4 days post-exposure in Eimeria acervulina.
Excess mucus overlapping with feces by Eimeria Acervulina during mas feeding. Picture collected from 70-week layer farm after case recovered by anticoccidial drugs.
Excess mucoid feces are commonly seen due to excess HCL secretion in the intestine followed by starvation by Eimeria Acervulina.
Swollen abdominal cavity looks like Ascites due to excess intestinal corrugation by Eimeria Acervulina.
In Eimeria acervulina’s Heavy infections often cause lesions to coalesce, and sometimes mortality may result.
Light to moderate infections may produce little effect on weight gain and feed conversion.
but may cause loss of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments from the blood and skin because of reduced absorption in the small intestine. in Eimeria acervulina infection.
Adult birds showing frog-like posture due to abdominal pain in the intestine by Eimeria Acervulina.
Chicks are unable to stand up followed by intestinal pain & low feed intake by Eimeria Acervulina.
Pasty vent & sometimes prolapse may occur due to excess peristalsis movement by Eimeria Acervulina.
If Eimeria acervulina left untreated properly, Torticolitis seen in the field called chronic Eimeria acervulina infection.
Picture collected from 38 days layer pullet after case recovered by anticoccidial drugs.
Chicks are huddled due to feeling severe irritating in the abdominal cavity by Eimeria Acervulina. It is seen in the
White plaques (transversely) most common findings in Eimeria acervulina infection.
The intestine may be pale and contain watery and mucoid fluid in Emeria acervulina infection.
The intestinal mucosa may be thickened, resulting in poor feed conversion.
Egg production may be depressed in laying birds in Eimeria acervulina infection.
The gross lesion in light infections is limited to the duodenal loop, with only a few plaques/cm in Eimeria acervulina.
In heavy infections, lesions may extend some distance through the small intestine, and plaques may overlap or coalesce in Eimeria acervulina infection.
The plaques are generally smaller in heavy infections due to crowding in Eimeria acervulina.
The lesions may be composed of schizonts, gametocytes, and developing oocysts in the duodenum by Eimeria acervulina.
Microscopy of smears from intestinal lesions usually reveals numerous oocysts and gametocytes of Eimeria acervulina varying stage of development.
Which stages more virulent in Eimeria acervulina infection?
the macrogametes and developing oocysts’ stages are more virulent due to rapid multiplication in Emeria acervulina infection.
Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Emeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi.
In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Emeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Emeria acervulina infection.
Picture collect from 27 weeks Brown layer birds.
Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Eimeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi.
In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Eimeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Eimeria acervulina infection.
Some epithelial cells may contain more than 1 parasite in Eimeria acervulina. Capillaries may be engorged with red blood cells and there is infiltration of granulocytes in the area parasitized in Eimeria acervulina infection.
Schiff’s reagent will stain the macrogametes and developing oocysts a brilliant red, because of the polysaccharide used in oocyst wall formation in Eimeria acervulina infection
If properly diagnosed, Eimeria acervulina infection treated successfully with a single antibiotic. Since there are many anticoccidial drugs but they limitation a great limitation of application in the field due to their mode of action.
Sulphonomide acts on developing schizont & early sexual stages but other anticoccidials acts on deferents stages. Eimeria acervulina rapid multiplication triggers by developing schizont & later sexual stages.
Sulfaclozine sodium@200mg/kg for 48 hours effective against Eimeria acervulina infestation at the field in chicken in the acute case at broiler & laying chicken.
If concurrent infection with others Eimeria spp like maxima, nicartrix, sulphonamide & toltrazuril 5% may use to killed Eimeria acervulina & others spp effectively.
If lesions persist with necrotic enteritis, Sulfaclozine sodium combine with lincomycin HCl used successfully
Articles published after the case has been solved by application of anticoccidial drugs.
Dr Md Ramzan Ali, Consultant (Poultry), Admin@poultrytmania.com
Ref Diseases of the poultry 13th edition