Emeria acervulina

Emeria acervulina: Clinical Sign | Treatment

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Emeria acervulina

Emeria acervulina is the species of Emeria that causing intestinal coccidiosis in chicken. Emeria acervulina also most common species who responsible for causing intestinal coccidiosis in Chicken.

Susceptible Ages

Emeria acervlunia infection get occurred from 01- 07 days in earlier ages but remain found in 120 weeks layer hens with necrotic enteritis according to field observation.

Oocyst

Oocyst of Emeria acervulina Oocysts are ovoid and often show thinning of the shell at the small end. The average size of oocysts is 18.3 × 14.6 µm, but the range is 17.7–20.2 × 13.7–16.3 µm.

Pathogenicity

Severity of Emeria acervulina  infection may vary with the isolate, the number of oocysts ingested, and the immune state of the bird. Ingestion of 103 , 104 , 105 , or 106 oocysts by young white rock chicks resulted in mild to severe coccidiosis, with lesion scores ranging from 1.1 (103 oocysts) to 4.0 (106 oocysts). Reduction in rate of weight gain was also proportional to the infective dose.

Site of infection: Duodenum & later part of intestine mixed with others species most predominant site of infection of Emeria acervulina in broiler & layer chicken.

Clinical Signs

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Faeces unevenly segregated from it normal structure due to intestinal corrugation
by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Watery and mucoid droppings may be seen as early as 4 days post exposure in Emeria acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Excess mucus overlapping with faeces
by Emeria Acervulina during mas feeding. Picture collected from 70 week layer farm after case recoverd by anticoccidial drugs.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Excess mucoid faeces are commonly seen due excess HCL secretion in the intestine followed by starvation by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Swollen abdominal cavity look like Ascites due to excess intestinal corrugation by
by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

In Emeria acervulina’s Heavy infections often cause lesions to coalesce, and sometimes mortality may result. Light to moderate infections may produce little effect on weight gain and feed conversion but may cause loss of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments from the blood and skin because of reduced absorption in the small intestine. in Emeria acervulina infection.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Adult birds showing frog like posture due to abdominal pain in intestine by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Chicks are unable to stand up followed by intestinal pain & low feed intake by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

Pasty vent & sometimes prolase may occurred due to excess paristalsis movement by
by Emeria Acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

If Emeria acervulina left untreated properly, Torticolitis seen in the field called chronic Emeria acervulina infection Picture collected from 38 days layer pullet after case recoverd by anticoccidial drugs.

Emeria acervulina in chicken

Chicks are huddled due to feeling severe irritating in abdominal cavity by Emeria Acervulina.

Postmortem findings:

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

White plaques (transversely) most common findings in Emeria acervulina infection. The intestine may be pale and contain watery and mucoid fluid in Emeria acervulina infection.
The intestinal mucosa may be thickened, resulting in poor feed conversion. Egg production may be depressed in laying birds in Emeria acervulina infection.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

The gross lesion in light infections is limited to the duodenal loop, with only a few plaques/cm in Emeria acervulina. In heavy infections, lesions may extend some distance through the small intestine, and plaques may overlap or coalesce in Emeria acervulina infection . The plaques are generally smaller in heavy infections due to crowding in Emeria acervulina.

Emeria acervulina in poultry. Emeria acervulina, Intestinal coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina, Coccidiosis, coccidiosis by Emeria acervulina

The lesions may be composed of schizonts, gametocytes, and developing oocysts in the duodenum by Emeria acervulina. Microscopy of smears from intestinal lesions usually reveals numerous oocysts and gametocytes of  Emeria acervulina varying stage of development.

Which stages more virulent in Emeria acervulina infection?

the macrogametes and developing oocysts stages are more virulent due to rapid multiplication in Emeria acervulina infection.

Histopathology

Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Emeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi. In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Emeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Emeria acervulina infection. Picture collect from 27 weeks Brown layer birds.

Emeria acervulina infection associated with Necrotic enteritis in poultry

Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Emeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi. In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Emeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Emeria acervulina infection. Some epithelial cells may contain more than 1 parasite in Emeria acervulina. Capillaries may be engorged with red blood cells and there is infiltration of granulocytes in the area parasitized in in Emeria acervulina infection. Schiff’s reagent will stain the macrogametes and developing oocysts a brilliant red, because of the polysaccharide used in oocyst wall formation in Emeria acervulina infection

Treatment

 If properly diagnosed, Emeria acervulina infection treated successfully with single antibiotic. Since there are many anticoccidial drugs but they limitation great limitation of application in the field due to their mode of action. Sulphonomide acts on developing shizont & early sexual stages but others  anticoccidials acts on deferents stages. Emeria acervulina rapid multiplication trigger by deloiping shizont & later sexual stages.

Sulfaclozine sodium@200mg/kg for 48 hours effective against Emeria acervulina infestion at field  in chicken in acute case at broiler & laying chicken in Emeria acervulina infection. If concurrent infection with others Emeria spp like maxima, nicartrix, sulphonomide & toltrazuril 5% may used to  killed Emeria acervulina & others spp effectively.

If leison persist with necrotic enteritis, Sulfaclozine sodium combine with lincomycin HCl used succesfully


Articles published after the case has been solved by application of anticoccidial drugs.


Dr Md Ramzan Ali, Consultant (Poultry), Admin@poultrytmania.com


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