Treating visceral gout in poultry

Visceral Gout Treatment In Poultry ¦ Febuxostat

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Febuxostat

Febuxostat is in a class of medications called xanthine oxidase inhibitors and it is a new drug for poultry which is successfully treating acute gout in poultry. It works by decreasing the amount of uric acid that is made in the body of poultry and other species. It is used to treating and preventing acute urate deposition in visceral organs of poultry.

In the human field, It is a novel non-purine selective inhibitor of both oxidized and reduced XO that is metabolized by the liver. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) therapy with either allopurinol or febuxostat is recommended as the first-line pharmacological urate-lowering therapy (ULT) approach in gout (Khanna et al. 2012a). (Ref sciencedirect.com)

Mode of Action

It is a non-purine-selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase to reduce uric acid.[It acts by non-competitively obstruct the molybdenum protein center which is the active site on xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is required to successively oxidize both hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Thereby, it inhibits xanthine oxidase, therefore decreasing the production of uric acid. It inhibits both oxidized as well as a reduced form of xanthine oxidase because of which it cannot be easily displaced from the molybdenum protein site.

Unique Characteristics

  1. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, could be used for treatment in those patients with allopurinol hypersensitivity, intolerance, or treatment failure in poultry.
  2. Febuxostat, unlike allopurinol, does not affect pyrimidine metabolism and is not reincorporated into nucleotides in poultry
  3. Unlike allopurinol and oxypurinol, febuxostat does not have a purine like a backbone in its basic structure.

Comparison With Allopurinol

  1. This drug served as a good alternative to allopurinol, especially in patients nonresponsive to allopurinol therapy on poultry. In clinical trials, febuxostat was generally well-tolerated with most frequently reported side effects being diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting in a human study.
  2. Allopurinol dosing should be more cautious in patients with renal insufficiency (CrCl < 50 mL/min) or elderly patients who are derived from human research.

Background

In 2016, Gout has turned into an epidemic condition on the broiler industry through Bangladesh. Some had comeback treating with allopurinol with other combinations of drugs. The author who is the registered veterinarian had to study gout facts of human diseases.

There are some drugs that have been applied successfully to treat gout and rheumatic arthritis which metabolic origin. Febuxostat one them, from this idea, the author had to treat broiler birds to stopped excessive mortality.

Finally, after successive trial on various form of dosages, the trial had been successful because of
There is a commercial formulation available for treating urate deposition in poultry. Since then, the author has been successfully treating avian gout in the broiler, layer, and other birds.

Case Study

The author has been drawn a trial of febuxostat on broiler about 500000 which encounters a uric acid deposition in the kidney which recorded as a repeat outbreak after the application of allopurinol at the recommended dose since 2015. The images of febuxostat vary case to case basis. From chicks to mature birds.
‌From 1 week,  2mg/kg body weight has shown an excellent result. The mortality has stopped just 24 hours if the birds are capable of intake water. But in severely affected birds may take time recovered as a normal physiological state.

There is no side effect such are frequent urination which may understand by the increased moisture of poultry litter, feed, and water intake also normal, there is no growth suppress phenomenon has occurred, FCR, Bodyweight all parameters have remained stable.

From the 2nd – 3rd weeks, the dosages were given to 3-4 mg/ kg body weight and results same as above mentioned data. The mortality has stopped both cases within a short period of time.

Dosages

For the acute cases of gout in poultry, febuxostat dosage has varied but range 2 mg-5 mg/kg bodyweight shown the excellent result in a metabolic and environmental origin in the field. In the case of laying birds, the trial has not yet done due to gout in laying in a sporadic nature and easily correct by the changing mash feeding formula.

Formulation

There is no formulation of febuxostat for poultry in the market but human 80 mg tablet form is available worldwide.

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