Fowl typhoid is a highly septicemic bacterial disease caused by salmonella gallinerum in chicks. Most other species such as turkey, quail, ducks are also susceptible. It is a normal inhabitant in chicks and adult poultry in the intestinal environment in poultry.
General Feature of salmonella gallinerum
It s a member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae which highly adaptive to the host. Generally normal inhabitant of the small intestine in chicks.
The bacteria are slender rods measuring approximately .9-1.0 pm-2.5 µm in length and .28-0.3 pm-1.5 µm in width.
All ages are susceptible to salmonella gallinerum in poultry. there is confusion about the age of susceptibility in different literature & writer also. some authors suggested that fowl typhoid only disease of adult birds especially laying hen. in some cases fowl typhoid concurrently occurred with coccidiosis in chicks.
But it occurred at any age at field condition. horizontal transform to parents to chicks from infected parents stock. Other possible ways to transmit to chicks by contaminated eggs.
Postmortem findings or necropsy of the fowl typhoid can found at an early age in chicks. Some important pathognomic lesion below-
there are two main site of infection at early ages in fowl typhoid.So check the two site such liver & spleen for diagnosing fowl typhoid in chicks.
the lesion of the adult layer hen has been presented in this video
As the causal agent of the fowl typhoid is salmonella gallinerum and it is a gram-negative-bacteria. Obviously, we have to choose the antibiotics which act on gram-negative-bacteria. The common antibiotics are Florfenicol, gentamycin salt, Neomycin, and Florfenicol.