Gout in chicken

Gout Management In Chicken

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What is Gout in Chicken?

Gout in Chicken is a common metabolic disease that affects laying Chicken all year round. But it is sporadic in nature. Although infectious agents are responsible in some instances, all causes of gout in Chicken are metabolic origins. Any abnormalities in a laying chicken ratio cause gout in laying chicken.

Etiology

There are lots of causes that are considered as the main culprit to induce gout in poultry. for detailed discussion which never possible it contains a huge chapter in this case. we are discussing this fact a short as possible.

Feed Containing Higher Crude Protein

Feed containing more than 30% of protein (CP) causes uric acid production which in turn creates an excretory load on kidneys in poultry. In the meantime, the presence of sulfates decreases calcium resorption causing excessive calcium secretion through urine. This condition responsible for gout.

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The high salt contents in Feed

The incidence of gout due to sodium such (sodium chloride) intoxication is seen in younger birds especially pullets when the sodium (Na+) levels exceed 0.4% in water and 0.8% in feed.

This generally happens when fish meal which containing crude protein 55-65%, is used in the diet (even with normal salt content) since the fish meal is rich in salt content. The total content of sodium chloride (NaCl) in the feed should not exceed 0.3% in a normal feed.

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Exorbitant Bicarbonate

Using Excessive use of sodium bicarbonate (HCOO-) when used to combat heat stress to improve eggshell quality in layers. This alkalinity of urine favors kidney stone formation in egg-layer birds.

High-Density Calcium

Overlapping dietary calcium (Ca2+) with low available phosphorus results in the precipitation of calcium-sodium-urate crystals. High levels of vitamin D3 can also increase calcium absorption from the intestines which can favor the formation and deposition of urate crystals in the visceral organ of poultry.

Sodium Intoxication

laying chicken susceptible due to sodium intoxication is seen in younger birds especially in pullet when the sodium levels exceed 0.4% in water and 0.8% in feed. This normally happens when fish meal meat and bone meals are used in the diet (even with normal salt content) since the fish meal is rich in salt content (above 7%). It should be kept in mind that sodium chloride in the feed should not exceed 0.3%.

Vitamine A deficiency

Long-term vitamin A deficiency causes sloughing of tubular epithelium and subsequent blockade leading to the deposition of urates in the kidney. However, the incidence of gout due to vitamin A deficiency is rare under field conditions.

Prolonged water withdrawal

Prolong Water deprivation leads to the concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and water in the kidneys. Water deprivation especially in the summer when environmental temperature persists above 27 ° C, is dangerous. This can happen during transportation of laying chicks and birds or due to blockage of nipples, inadequate number of waterers but higher,

It leads to the concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and water in the kidneys. Water deprivation especially in the summer when environmental temperature persists above 27 ° C, is dangerous.

It can look at during transportation of laying chicks and birds or due to blockage of nipples, an inadequate number of waterers but the higher number of feeders, the extra height of water lines and in open flock system distance of waterers, overcrowding, water withholding for long durations during vaccination, etc.

The physical structure of water

Hard water with higher salt content is also a load on the kidney to excrete more uric acid due to laying chicken can nourish the body with the higher salting water.

Infectious causes

In the case of infectious agents, for instance, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, Infectious bronchitis, salmonellosis, colibacillosis are responsible for causing gout in laying hen.

See Also- Gout in poultry ı Etiology and Causal Agents

Clinical Symptoms

  • Pesty Vent with greenish feces
  • Disability
  • staggering
  • Frog like posture
  • Swallen Joint and hot to touch

Gross Findings

  • Urate deposition on the epicardium, air sac, lung, etc
  • White chalky urate crystals layer deposition on the liver which easily touches out
  • White chalky sticky urate crystals deposition on Intestine
  • White chalky sticky urate crystals deposition on Reproductive organs
  • Soft shall egg are stuck into the uterus
  • Urate crystals are mildly present in the joint cavity in the acute attack

Gout in Chickens Feet

It is known as articular gout in poultry. It is a chronic condition for a longer period of time in chicken. normally uric acid crystal deposit on joints, ligaments, and tendon sheaths. some scientists believe that some genetic factors responsible for it in chickens but it is rarely seen in poultry.

Remedies

Treatment depends on according causes which discuss in individual parts in gout management in chicken

  • Should be supplied plenty of water, adequate drinkers, and water pipe for egg layer chicken.
  • Feed containing higher protein than the recommended level as per the age and breed should be avoided. Provide a low protein diet for 3-5 days based on need depending on the severity of gout in acute cases.
  • Use of urine acidifiers which decrease urate deposition on kidney and other visceral organs.: Following urine acidifiers may be given in water or feed.

a. Vinegar: 1-2 ml per liter water up to 72-120  hours until mortality goes to normal.

b. Potassium chloride: 1 gram/liter water for up to 24 hours.

c. Ammonium chloride: 2-2.5 kg /ton feed for 7 days.

d. Ammonium sulphate: 2-2.5 kg /ton feed for 7 days.

4. Ensure adequate levels of A, D3, K and B complex vitamins, and minerals.

5. Excessive use of sodium bicarbonate eg more than 2kg/ton should be avoided.

6. Supplying broken maize which is considered as a low purine diet and lesser uric production, thereby urate deposition also decreased in visceral organ in poultry, at least for 3 days.

7. Providing 0.6% methionine hydroxyl analog free acid with 3% calcium in the diet decreases the production of uric acid in the liver.

8. Allopurinol which available at 2.5-5% should be given 10-40mg in drinking water twice daily and never stop dosage until mortality zero/.

9. Febuxostat- For details click here

Prevention

For the prevention of gout in poultry in laying chicken it is necessary to have:

1) Nutritionally and Scientifically provide a balanced feed that containing proper guideline

A) Calcium-phosphorus ratio depending on the type of ratio is produced.

b) Vitamin A, D3, and other essential vitamins and minerals are provided.

c) Required level of sodium, chloride and other ions should be maintained.

d) Conventional sources of protein should be also considered.

2) Determining the feed for mycotoxin content and if found positive change the feed or use suitable toxin binders to fix it.

3) Judicious use of drugs such as antibiotics especially sulpha drugs and anticoccidials to avoid kidney damage.

4) Fresh potable water accessible to birds all the time to promotes excrete uric acid quickly.

5) Copper sulfate should not be used for medication in all cases, if used should be used under the directions of a  registered veterinarian or a poultry practitioner.

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RAMZAN ALI ,DVM

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