Uric acid is a chemical substance and is a metabolic end product of purine metabolism which is naturally producing in poultry and animal body. Uric acid is deposited on the kidney causing gout in poultry.
FORMATION OF URIC ACID
It is considered as a urine part which is white in color mixing with poultry feces
Purine metabolism is referred to as pathways by which purine breaks down into uric acid & excrete via the kidney from the poultry and other species.
In a word, the formation of uric acid to expulsion from the body, the whole process called purine metabolism
The general function of purine including pyrimidine is protein synthesis, gene transcription, the replication of genetic materials, etc.
In other words, It is the catabolic end product of protein non-protein nitrogenous substances and purine.
URIC ACID DISORDER
Uric acid is responsible for causing hyperuricemia or gout in poultry. Hyperuricemia may define as an excess amount of uric acid in the blood of poultry. Gout defines as a deposition of uric acid in the kidney and articular joint of poultry. In other terms known as urolithiasis or uroliths in poultry.
- It is heterocyclic in nature which consists of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen.
- It has a chemical structure which is denoted by C₅H₄N₄O₃.
- This structure forms ions and salts known as urates ( sodium and potassium urates) and acid urates, for instance, ammonium acid urates.
MODE OF ACTION
- It is formed by the breakdown of protein by xanthine oxidase or other hydraulic enzymes. Xanthine oxidase is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase.
- Xanthine oxidoreductase is a complex enzyme that consists of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. This complex exists in separate forms but incontrovertible forms.
- The main activities of xanthine oxidoreductase catalyze the last two steps of purine catabolism in the highest uricotelic primates. But xanthine oxidase plays a crucial role in a separate form.
- The last two steps of purine catabolism are
1) hypoxanthine to xanthine
2) xanthine to oxidase.
- therefore xanthine oxidase is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to form uric acid.
- Finally, xanthine oxidase is entirely responsible for forming uric acid in poultry & other species. Without, xanthine oxidase uric acid is unable to form in the body.
Why uric acid causes gout?
There are two exact findings to develop gout in poultry and the human body-
- 1. The production or excretion of uric acid by the over metabolism of purine.
- 2. To rare enzyme deficiency of xanthine oxidase that affects purine synthesis or degradation in the body of poultry and another animal.