Coccidiosis defined as single cell protozoan disease that caused by Emeria species under the family of apicomplexa. Most common characteristics of Emeria species are single cells & intracellular parasites. Its common disease of poultry due to it is acts as natural host for this organism. Emeria have complex life cycle which completely multiply into the chicken.
Life cycle Stages of Emeria species
Life cycle of Emeria species have continues process & repeated again & again in the flock. Sometimes its uncontrollable due to their repeated life cycle of Emeria species. So it has precious life cyle. Broadly life cycle of Emeria species divided into two cycles.
there are three life cycle found in the animal kingdom. See here details
a) Asexual Life cycle
It defined as reproduction of single cell organisms that occurs by itself without exchanging genetic materials (chromosomes). New individual is same identity from its parents. It does not involved fusion of macro & micro gametes & does not changes chromosomal numbers. This is life cycles occurs outside & inside the host in case of Emeria species.
Stages of Asexual life cycles
Asexual stages started from normal Oocyst which excretes by faeces & ingestion from litter or sitting materials of poultry.
Oocyst (Plural Ocysts) defined as spherical single reproductive cells that contain zygote that covered by thick wall structure of protozoan parasites which are highly resistant to high temperature & chemical compounds.
A cyst like thick wall round structure contain encysted zygote produced from sporoblast from which sporozoite develop by Emeria protozoan species. The process of formation sporocyst called sporolution. This sporocyst called sporulated ocyst. Sporolated ocyst called infective stages of Emeria species. Meosis cell division is present this process.
Severals factors involved for sporulation like poultry litter condition, temperature, moisture & Oxygen etc. Sporulation take place outside the host.
Motile & Spore like structure which developed from sporocyst. Sporozoites typical infective agent introduced into the host intracellularly. The process of formation sporozoite called sporozony. It’s the infective stages of Plasmodium spices. Sporozoites is the first stages which initiate asexual life cycle inside the host. Its rapidly enter into intestinal mucosa & introduces new stage called tropozoites.
Tropozoites defined as motile, peared shaped,projecting a vntral surface with an adhesive disc which composed by microtubules & ribbons that allowing grasp onto the host epithelium. There are four types of flagella in tropozoites has been reported.
A cell developed from a trophozoite & divides by schizogony to form daughter cells which undergoes multiple fission to form merozoites.
Merozoites defined as a small ameboid like structure similar to tropozoites produced by schizony & ability to initiate sexual life cycle of Emeria species.
Sexual life cycle
Sexual life cycle is defined by the procedure of meiosis, in which offspring cells get half of their hereditary data from each parent cell. Sexual multiplication is normally managed by ecological occasions. There are two stages followed by Emeria life cycle below
In science, meiosis is the procedure by which one diploid eukaryotic cell partitions to create four haploid cells frequently called gametes. Meiosis does not happen in archaea or bacterial microorganisms
The process of formation gemates during stages of life cycle some protozoan species called gematogeny.
There are two types of gamtogeny
The cells responsible for producing male gemates called Microgematocyte
the littler and generally male female gamete of a heterogamous in emeria spp
The cells responsible for producing female gemate during sexual life cycles of Emeria spp called Macrogamatocytes.
Comparatively larger then Microgamates & considered as a female gamates.
How to form zygote
The procedure of schizogony repeats 1-4 times, varies to species to species. At that point, following infiltration of another epithelial cell, the merozoite forms into either a macrogametocyte or a microgametocyte.
Microgametocytes produce microgametes that burst from the infected cells, enter into the cells containing macrogametes, and fertilized them. As a result zygotes comes out from impermeable cyst wall around themself & finally Ocyst are formed.
Ocyst rupture from host cells & excrete by faeces in the environmrnt. Then sporulation take places within few days & form oocyte containing zygote. after Sporozoites form within the ocyst & now its became infective.