Coccidiosis in poultry

The life cycle of Emeria species | Stages

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The Stages of the life cycle of Emeria

Stages of Emeria Spp’s life cycle have been maintained the strongest systemic way. The life cycle of Emeria species has continues process & repeated again & again in the flock. Sometimes its uncontrollable due to their repeated life cycle of Eimeria species. So it has precious life cyle. Broadly life cycle of Emeria species divided into two cycles.

See Also- Emeria spp-The poultry Monster

Types of Stages of Emeria

Coccidiosis defined as a single-cell protozoan disease caused by Eimeria species under the family of apicomplexan. The most common characteristics of Emeria species are single cells & intracellular parasites. It’s a common disease of poultry due to it acts as a natural host for this organism. Emeria have a complex life cycle that completely multiplies into the chicken.

there are three life cycles found in the animal kingdom. See here details

See also- Lesion Scoring Of coccidiosis

a) Asexual Life cycle

It defined as the reproduction of single-cell organisms that occur by themselves without exchanging genetic materials (chromosomes). The new individual is the same identity as their parents. It does not involve the fusion of macro & microgametes & does not change chromosomal numbers. This is life cycle occurs outside & inside the host in the case of Emeria species.

Stages of Asexual life cycles

Asexual stages started from normal Oocyst which excretes by feces & ingestion from litter or sitting materials of poultry.

Ocyst

Oocyst (Plural Ocysts) defined as spherical single reproductive cells that contain zygote that covered by the thick wall structure of protozoan parasites which are highly resistant to high temperature & chemical compounds.

See also- site of Emeria Infection in poultry

Sporocyst

A cyst-like thick wall round structure contains an encysted zygote produced from sporoblast from which sporozoite develop by Emeria protozoan species. The process of formation sporocyst called sporulation. This sporocyst called sporulated oocyst. Sporolated oocyst called infective stages of Eimeria species. Meiosis cell division is present in this process.

Several factors involved for sporulation like poultry litter condition, temperature, moisture & Oxygen, etc. Sporulation takes place outside the host.

See Also- Top 3 drugs for coccidiosis treatment in poultry

Sporozoites

Motile & Spore-like structure which developed from sporocyst. Sporozoites typical infective agent introduced into the host intracellularly. The process of formation of sporozoite called sporogony. It’s the infective stages of Plasmodium spices. Sporozoites is the first stages that initiate the asexual life cycle inside the host. It rapidly enters into intestinal mucosa & introduces a new stage called trophozoites.

Tropozoites

Trophozoites defined as the motile, pear-shaped, projecting a ventral surface with an adhesive disc composed of microtubules & ribbons that allowing a grasp onto the host epithelium. There are four types of flagella in trophozoites have been reported.

Schizont

A  cell developed from a trophozoite & divides by schizogony to form daughter cells that undergo multiple fission to form merozoites.

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Merozoites

Merozoites defined as a small ameboid-like structure similar to trophozoites produced by schizont & the ability to initiate the sexual life cycle of Eimeria species.

Sexual life cycle

The sexual life cycle is defined by the procedure of meiosis, in which offspring cells get half of their hereditary data from each parent cell. Sexual multiplication is normally managed by ecological occasions.  There are two stages followed by Emeria life cycle below

Gamates

In science, meiosis is the procedure by which one diploid eukaryotic cell partitions to create four haploid cells frequently called gametes. Meiosis does not happen in archaea or bacterial microorganisms

See also- Life cycle of Emeria spp

Gamtogeny

The process of formation gemmates during stages of life cycle some protozoan species called gematogeny.

There are two types of gamtogeny

a) Microgematocyte

The cells responsible for producing male gametes called Microgematocyte

Microgametes

the littler and generally male-female gamete of a heterogamous in emerita spp

b) Macrogamatocytes

The cells are responsible for producing female gemmate during sexual life cycles of Emeria spp called Macrogamatocytes.

Macrogamates

Comparatively larger than Microgamates & considered as female gametes.

How to form the zygote?

The procedure of schizogony repeats 1-4 times, varies from species to species. At that point, following infiltration of another epithelial cell, the merozoite forms into either a macrogametocyte or a microgametocyte.

Microgametocytes produce microgametes that burst from the infected cells, enter into the cells containing macrogametes, and fertilized them. As a result, zygotes comes out from impermeable cyst wall around themself & finally Ocyst are formed.

See Also- Emeria acervulina: Clinical Sign | Treatment In Poultry

Ocyst rupture from host cells & excrete by feces in the environment. Then sporulation takes place within few days & forms an oocyte containing a zygote. after Sporozoites from within the oocyst & now it becomes infective.

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RAMZAN ALI ,DVM
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