Newcastle Disease : Definition & Types - POULTRY MANIA
Newcastle disease

Newcastle Disease : Definition & Types

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Newcastle Disease

Newcastle disease (ND) define as a viral disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) under the family of paramyxoviridae. there are various types of Newcastle Disease and have different definition exist in the world.

Its non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus. It caused disease in poultry especially chicken, pigeon, etc.

Newcastle Disease Definition

Definition of Newcastle disease broadly announced in two ways worldwide which are most acceptable.

Older Definition

(a) According to OIE (Formerly The Office International des Epizooties OIE)

Newcastle disease (ND) is defined as an infection of birds caused by a virus of avian paramyxovirus serotype- 1 (APMV-1) that should meet one of the following criteria for virulence:

⦁ Newcastle disease virus has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) of 0.7 or greater.

See also:

Newcastle Disease: Cerebral Pathogenicity Index

Newcastle Disease: Vaccine Strain With Cerebral Pathogenicity Index( ICPI) Value

⦁ Newcastle disease is a disease of birds caused by strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1, significantly more virulent than lentogenic strains.

⦁ Virulence of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virus depends on multiple basic amino acids in virus structure (either directly or by deduction) at C & N terminus.

Multiple basic amino acid shows at the C-terminus of F2 protein & phenylalanine (F) at residue 117 which is the N-terminus of the F1 protein.

The term multiple basic amino acids refer to at least 3 arginine or lysine residues between residues 113 and 116.

In this definition, amino acid residues are numbered from the N-terminus of the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the F0 gene, and 113–116 corresponds to residues –4 to –1 from the cleavage site.

Newcastle Disease New Definition

⦁ Newcastle disease is a disease of poultry caused by a virus of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) which has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks of 1.2 or greater.

⦁ Virulent virus can also be confirmed by the presence of multiple basic amino acids at the at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and F (phenylalanine) at residue 117, the N-terminus of the F1 protein If NDV virus unable to demonstrate the unique pattern of amino acid residues as explain above would require characterization of the isolated virus by an ICPI test.

2) According to the European Union (EU):

“an infection of poultry caused by an avian strain of the paramyxovirus 1 with an intracerebral pathogenicity index [ICPI] in day-old chicks greater than 0.7”.

Definition in Pigeon

Paramyxovirus infection in pigeon

In addition, variant APMV-1 isolates from pigeons are referred to as pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1).

Based on the OIE definition, by containing multiple amino acids in the fusion cleavage site, the PPMV-1 isolates are vNDV and upon infection of poultry are defined as ND and are reportable to the OIE.
However, only some PPMV-1 cause signs of clinical disease in chickens, giving ICPI values of less than 0.7.

but increasing in virulence after multiple passages in chickens.


There are two types of Newcastle disease found worldwide

virulence Newcastle disease virus (vNDV)

It’s defined as Newcastle disease (ND) infection which meets criteria according to OIE for Newcastle disease. Common criteria are

  1. The virus should have an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) of 0.7 or greater
  2. NDV shows basic amino acids in virus structure. etc

Common vNDV pathotypes are velogenic & Mesogenic strain

Low virulence Newcastle disease virus (LoDV)

It’s defined as asymptomatic or NDV of low virulence will be referred to as loNDV. These types of NDV found in reservoir hosts or natural hosts. The common natural host is Pigeon. domesticated chicken, comments, Live Newcastle disease vaccine

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