Newcastle Disease Live Vaccine
Newcastle disease live vaccine is a world concern to the poultry producers. It is extensively used throughout the world to prevent Newcastle disease (ND). It has been seen that, there huge lack of information about it. The maximum number of poultry producers depends on commercial ND vaccine producers for the vaccine information.
But the reality is totally different if we read the poultry book information. Poultry mania has revealed a piece of such true information that is practically proven by our vet. There are mainly two types of Newcastle disease vaccines are available compared to others form.
See Also- Newcastle disease vaccine types
The Top 7 reasons to avoid Newcastle disease live vaccine is going to discussed part by part below-
1. Maternal Immunity fact
Maternal Immunity is a crucial fact to protect the birds from the earliest disease. For instance, the First 30 days are always important due to chicks are vulnerable to any disease
Among them, Newcastle disease is the most devastating due to steaming out all the flocks at a time especially in the broiler. Therefore, we should know the principle.
Chicks habitiually receive up to 3 weeks of protection from maternal antibodies allowing their immune system to mature to a level capable of eliciting an efficient active immune response if exposed to a potentially harmful virus or bacteria.Diseases of poultry, 12 edition
2. Maternal Immunity Neutralization
It is a common complaint from the poultry producers, my poultry flock has infected by the Newcastle disease virus after applying one-two live Newcastle vaccines. How can avoid Newcastle (ND) live vaccine? The answer is explained below-
a) Prevent Primary Immunisation
AS a Rule of thumb says, Maternally derived immunity may prevent successful primary vaccination with live virus. It means, If the chicks have a higher level of maternal immunity, we cannot increase the immunity of the birds against Newcastle disease by vaccination. If you giving live ND vaccine at any time to poultry, It may lose your money as well as more vulnerable to ND.
b) Live ND vaccine neutralization
It is a worldwide practice that, every poultry chicks breeder company immunized their parent stocks every viral disease. Among them, Newcastle disease always chacks after 21 days interval to surveillance proactive Haemagglutinin (HA) titer. The purpose of this vaccination is, chicks should be protected by maternal immunity during the chick go out of the field.
Most importantly, Live vaccine viruses are neutralized by maternal antibodies and this is problematic for countries with stringent vaccine protocols for breeders. which subsequently produce chicks with high maternal antibody levels.Diseases of poultry, 12 edition
If we elicit that quote, the birds having a well maternal immunity, it can survive in the area where velogenic Newcastle disease virus is the mostly prevail.
I have been using this teachnique since 2016 in my working area and still it is continuing. I have a farmer who has been rearing 4000 broiler birds in the region named shibpur, narsingdhi, Bangladesh (Contact +8801715-332635) and conducting a trial this technique last two years, cannot give any single Newcastle live vaccine in a all year round. Therefore, The farmer succesfully pick out the all batches without outbreak a Newcastle disease compared to vaccinated flock even in winter season and run his projest is still running by this procedure. It is a single pieces of eaxmple but i have been saving the million birds as well as money of the farmers. the succesful history behind this teschnique that, I can not neutrilize the maternal immunity. I have been observed that, newcastle disease is more prone to vaccinated flock than unvaccinnated broiler flock in my region.
Therefore, you can totally avoid it because your breeder company is always doing it.
3. Live ND Virus Causing disease
Several disadvantages exist, the most important of which is that the vaccine may cause disease, depending upon environmental conditions and the presence of complicating infections.
Therefore, it is important to use extremely mild virus for primary vaccination and, as a result, multiple applications of vaccine(s) usually are needed.Diseases of poultry, 13 edition
4. Killing Live ND Virus
If the area is highly problem with power cut the vaccine strain must be killed during carrying and storage. Therefore, small farmers are struggling to evaluate the standard vaccines.
Most importantly, live vaccines are inactivated by high temperatures and require refrigeration. Live vaccines may be killed easily by chemicals and heat and, if not carefully controlled during production, can contain contaminating virusesDiseases of poultry, 13 edition
5. HA Titer Failure to reach the peak level
if we vaccinate the poultry flock with zero maternal immunity, the rising titer about 24 -26. that means we can not receive desired immunity which is not sufficient to prevent Newcastle disease virus. but HI titers as high as 211 or more may be obtained following a vaccination program involving the oil-emulsion vaccine.
See also- ND vaccines advantages and disadvantages
For NDV, the immune response is usually estimated by the HI titers obtained. Single vaccination with live lentogenic virus will produce a response in susceptible birds of about 24 -26 compared to normal range 28-210Diseases of poultry, 13 edition
6. Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI)
It is defined as a test that indicates the virulence of the virus strain of Newcastle disease virus. The term virulence means the ability of the pathogen to infect or harmfulness a host.
If we can see that Newcastle disease live vaccine containing a live virus. It is scientifically proven that live virus initiating a disease into a host cell after the application of live Newcastle vaccine in the given poultry. There are some commercials Newcastle disease live vaccine with ICPI Value
Ulster 2C = 0.0 means There is zero possibility to induce disease from the vaccine strain
Hitchner B1 = 0.2 means There are produced Newcastle disease symptoms but can not visible from the outside.
LaSota = 0.4 means There are produced Newcastle disease symptoms compared to Hicthner B1 but can not visible from the outside. But disease outbreak work in favorable condition especially in the winter season.
However, Why we can apply live Nd vaccine in poultry?
7. Herd Immunity
If you have raring a 1000 commercial birds, you should achieve 80-90% herd immunity. In the simple ward, In a single ND live vaccination, 80-90% of birds intake it and produce better immunity. But it very much difficult to observe which birds take the vaccine water or not.
Herd immunity may only be reached if greater than 85% of the flock is immunized.The live vaccine virus will be shed from immunized birds to their nonvaccinated flock mates, extending the amount of time that live virus circulates on the farm.Diseases of poultry, 12 edition
Ramzan, DVM, Poultry Veterinarian
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