What is Chickens with Coccidiosis?
Chickens with Coccidiosis is defined as the disease which is associated with Coccidiosis that is caused by the Eimeria species under the family of Eimeriidae and order Eucoccidioridae in chickens. Chicken is infected with Coccidiosis in various factors on the farm.it is the most important disease in chicken.
- Intestinal Coccidiosis
Intestinal Coccidiosis In Chicken
|Name||Sites of infection|
|E. Hagani||The anterior part of the Small intestine|
|E. Mitis||Small intestine|
Identification of Eimeria spp in chickens
The species of Eimeria have been identified on some basic criteria which are-
Size and shape of Oocyst
Site of multiplication in the intestinal tract
Time required of sporulation
Broadly life cycle of Coccidiosis in chicken is divided in two segments-
- Asexual life cycle
- Sexual reproduction
Asexual life cycle
- Unsporoluted Oocys
- Sporulated Oocyst
It considered fresh Ocyst which newly come out in the environment from the intestine of poultry. It’s also called Oocyst. The most common characteristics are covering by thick walls, high resistance to temperature & disinfectant.
A cyst-like thick wall round structure contains an encysted zygote produced from sporoblast from which sporozoite develop by Eimeria protozoan species. The process of formation sporocyst called sporolution. This sporocyst called sporulated ocyst. Sporolated ocyst called infective stages of Eimeria species. Meosis cell division is present this process.
Flow Chart of Life cycle
Severals factors involved for sporulation like poultry litter condition, temperature, moisture & Oxygen etc. Sporulation take place outside the host.
Sporulated Ocyst crushed by gizzard ventricles & Release sporoluted ocyst in the intestine in the poultry.
Sporulated Oocyst convert four sporocyst & each contain two sporozoites by the action of chemotripsin & bile salt.
Release million of sporozoites in lumen of inrestine by process of Excystation in asexual reproduction.
The motile sporozoites into the enterocytes of small intestine then migrate to their respective sites of development
This results sporozoites attachment to host cell receptors by gliding motility. Attachment can initiate continuous reproduce sporozoites.
Then Enter into the epithelial cells of epithelium Or Intraepithelial cells lymphocyts intestine of poultry. the sporozoites develop into Tropozoites by asexual reproduction
Convert Schizont afetr several rounds of asexual reproduction of schizont in the inrestine.This results in many nuclei developing within the schizont by asexual reproduction . Each nucleus develops into a merozoite which initiate sexual reproduction.schizonts rupture, million of merozoites are released intestine.
Microgametocytes produce microgametes that burst from the infected cells, enter into the cells containing macrogametes, and fertilized them. As a result zygotes comes out from impermeable cyst wall around themself & finally Ocyst are formed.
These gametes fuse to form an oocyst & Ocyst rupture from host cells which is then released in its non-infectious, unsporulated form through the faeces of the host & excrete by faeces in the environmrnt.
- Caecal Coccidiosis
- Intestinal Coccidiosis
The caecum may be filled with blood-tinged contents in case of caecal Coccidiosis in chicken. In some cases, the caecal wall shows patchy or diffuse hemorrhage.
There are may be cheesy cores in congested caeca in chronic Coccidiosis in chicken.
In some cases, the hemorrhagic enteritis in chicken may be diffuse.
In chronic Coccidiosis with chicken, white pinpoint to pinhead-sized focci in small to large number various parts of intestinal Coccidiosis.
The intestinal wall in Coccidiosis with chicken heavily infected cases became thickened, flabby and dilated.
chickens with coccidiosis symptoms
Symptoms of Chicken with Coccidiosis are classified by the two major Infection-
Caecal Coccidiosis Symptoms
It is generally affects chicks below 10 weeks of age with maximum incidence in 4 to 8 week old chicks. But Chicks below 2 weeks rarely seen.
The most common caecal Coccidiosis in chicks are-
Often but not always bloody diarrheas’
Mortality go as high as 50%
Intestinal Coccidiosis Symptoms
The most common first signs of chicken Intestinal Coccidiosis symptoms to attract attention in such cases are-
Paleness of mucus membranes
Loss of yellowish color of shank.
Poor egg production
Undigested and brown color feces are common symptoms
Sometimes diarrhoea but the presence of blood in the faeces is not very common.
Others Species Symptoms
Chicken with Coccidiosis is more chronic with mortality around 8 to 10 percent in the case of E. Acervulina Infection.
Birds of 1.5 month to 4 months of age affected by the E. necartrix.
Eimeria mitis produces disease both in growers as well as adults.
Eimeria mivati produces relatively acute type of disease both in the growers and adults.
1. The presences of characteristics gross lesion are great diagnostic value in chickens with Coccidiosis
2. Examination of faecal contents or scraping from affected mucosa of the intestine shows oval, thik walled Oocyst, large round multikaryotic shizonts, gametocytes, etc , in significant numbers.
how to treat chickens with coccidiosis?
Treatment for Chickens with coccidiosis depends on types of drugs, mode of action, dose, and stages of Eimeria spp. It is a common question on how to treat chickens with coccidiosis?
The common medicine is using in chickens with Coccidiosis are into two categories
- Drugs using in Drinking Water
- Drugs Using In Feed
Drinking Water medication
The common drugs for chickens with coccidiosis treatment using in water is given in this table below-
|Name Of Drugs||Dosages|
|Ethanamizuril (EZL)||5-9 mg/kg body weight (KBW), PO|
|Diclazuril||5-10 mg/kg PO, in feed .8-.1.2 mg/kg.|
|Toltrazuril||7-100 mg/kg for 48 hours acutely, the dose may half at prevention|
|Sulphaclozine sodium||50 mg/ kg/ day upto 90mg/kg|
|Amprolium (Corid)||10-30 mg/kg, PO,|
Feed Grade Drugs
The common drugs for chickens with coccidiosis treatment using in feed is given in this table below-
|Drugs Name||Dose (PPM, MG)|
|Monensin||70-125, safety margin 180|
|Narasin||50-60, safety margin 70-80|
Drugs using feed grade has remarkable role in preventing coccidiosis in chickens.
How coccidiosis was treated in 1980 and early days there were some scienfic results as most of vets in early 1980 were treating coccidiosis with commercial grade hydrochloric acid
Prevention of Coccidiosis by hydrochloric acid (HCL) at 1 ml per litre of drinking water from 15 to 35 days.
Treatment for chickens Coccidiosis using hydrochloric acid at 5ml per litre for 5 days.
how to Control chickens with coccidiosis?
This method has been using in rotationally with ionophores, vaccines, coccidiostats, and coccidiocidals again which is explained below-
The first controlled method gives chemicals like diclazuril or clopidol or robenidine in starter diet and monensin or salinomycin or maduramycin in the finisher.
the second-give chemical in rotation eg diclazuril for two batches and robenidine for 2 batches in chicken
3rd -give vaccines for 2 batches in chicken
4th -chemicals in starter and change to monovalent and bivalent ionophores in rotation like salinomycin monensin maduramycin are monovalent while lasolacied is bivalent in chicken
5th coccidiosis vaccines followed with coccidiostats in chicken
Controlling By Shuttle Program
in the United States and the United Kingdom shuttle program is more popular. they don’t change the litter in chicken. coccidiostat without immunity is preferred like diclazuril and monensin or salinomycin in layers of chicken.
Robendine is preferred because it gives immunity to nicarbazine discouraged in summer as it causes metabolic toxicity maduramycein causes vitamin a def and increases water intake so it may lead to chronic coccidiosis with chickens
By controlling Synthetic drugs
chemicals are synthetic drugs which is using on coccidiosis with chicken acting on sporozoites at intracellular level while ionophores hampers iron and sodium (Na) transport in coccidia cell so change in molecules also change mode of action hence better performance
As cocci develops at 30 pc moisture with a temp of 25 degrees at 70 pc RH shed conditions with poor ventilation are favorable to its use of preventive coccidiostats plus coccicidals simultaneously leads to chronic cocci more dangerous than acute cocci use of turmeric garlic alum along with coccidial is beneficial
By Anticoccidial drugs
the most anticoccidial drugs are Sulphur drugs such as sulphadimidine, sulphaquinoxaline, sulphadiazine, sulphaclozine sodium, etc. choice of medicines is based on breed type of rearing and environment.
Other triazinetrione derivative are Toltrazuril, Diclazuril, ponazuril, Ehanamizuril etc.
Comparative efficacy of Anticoccidial drugs
Sulfa drugs are more useful than amprolium. amprolium has recently acquired resistance. sulfa drugs should be used fr 5 days while amprolium fr 7 days.
toltrazuril is the most recent coccicidal which cleanses all oocysts from the intestine within 2 days when given fr 2 days @ 80 gms 150 k body wt of birds. prolong use of amprolium leads to b1 def and lameness in birds
In conclusion- conclusion to the best of my knowledge cryostat or diclazuril followed by monensin is better fr broilers only robendine fr layers up to 10 weeks robindine follows vaccines against cocci in breeders.