Paramyxoviridae defined as virus family consisting negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus causing disease in humen & animals like measles, mumps Newcastle disease virus under the order of Mononegavirales. The family Paramyxoviridae includes many important veterinary and human pathogens and is divided into 2 subfamilies, Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. The family Paramyxoviridae is placed in the order Mononegavirales with three other families Rhabdoviridae Bornaviridae and Filoviridae
Vertebrate serve as natural host but plant does not act so. There are 49 species include this family which is important for humen & animals pathogens
Subfamilies: Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae.
Genera: Morbillivirus. Respirovirus. Henipavirus, Rubulavirus, Avulavirus.
|Morbillivirus||Canine distemper, Rinderpest virus||Measles virus|
|Respirovirus||Bovine & Humen parainfluenza 3 & Sendai virus||Humen Parainfluenza Virus 1|
|Hanipa Virus||Nipah & hendra virus|
|Rubulavirus||Some other mamalian parainfluenza virus||Mumps virus|
|Avulavirus||Other Avian Paramyxovirus ( AVMP-2-AVMP-9)||Newcastle disease (AVMP-1)|
- Members of the family Paramyxoviridae are enveloped RNA viruses that possess non segmented, single-stranded genomes of negative sense.
- The RNA undergoes capsid assembly in the cytoplasm and envelopment at the surface of infected cells.
- By negative contrast electron microscopy, particles appear pleomorphic, usually 100–500 nm in diameter if roughly spherical, or about 100 nm across if fi lamentous
The family has been divided into two subfamilies: Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae
The subfamily Paramyxovirinae currently has 8 genera that include important human and veterinary pathogens. Paramyxovirinae covers Newcastle Disease and Others Paramyxovirus.
The subfamily Paramyxovirinae is divided into five genera:
• Morbillivirus. The type species is measles virus; the genus includes canine distemper and rinderpest viruses
• Respirovirus. The type species is Human parainfl uenza virus 1; the genus includes bovine and human parainfluenza 3 and Sendai virus
• Henipavirus. Formed from Nipah virus and Hendra virus
• Rubulavirus. Mumps virus include as it species, the genus includes some other mammalian parainfl uenza viruses
• Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV or APMV-1), the type species, and the other avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-2 to APMV-11) are placed in this genus.
The name is derived from ‘avian Rubulavirus’ as at one time the avian paramyxoviruses were placed in the same genus as mumps virus.
Characterization Of Avulavirus
They have a herringbone nucleocapsid of about 18 nm in diameter and a pitch of 5 nm.
The virus particles have typical projections covering the surface, which are inserted into the envelope.
there are two sizes of surface projection, or spike
The longest (about 8 nm) consists of a single glycoprotein (HN) with which both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activities are associated.
The smaller spikes are formed by the F glycoprotein, which is associated with the ability of the virus envelope to fuse with cell membranes, allowing insertion of virus genetic material into the host cell, and to cause fusion of infected cells, resulting in the characteristic cytopathic effect of syncytial formation.
The subfamily Pneumovirinae has 2 genera:
- Pneumovirus,consisting of mammalian pneumoviruses
- Metapneumovirus, consisting of both human and avian metapneumoviruses (ICTV).
The avian metapneumovirus infections continue to emerge as a disease threat with 4 defined serotypes, A–D,being recognized and producing clinical disease in both turkeys and chickens.
The serotype C viruses are genetically closely related to the recently recognized human metapneumovirus (8). The avian metapneumoviruses also have a wild bird reservoir, but it is unclear how or if wild birds play a role in outbreaks in poultry .
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