Paramyxoviridae in poultry

Paramyxoviridae : Serotypes | Prototypes

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Paramyxoviridae

Defined as virus family consisting negative-sense single-strandedRNA virus causing disease in humen & animals like measles, mumps Newcastle disease virus under the order of Mononegavirales.. However, since the early 1970s innumerable isolations have been made from avian species of paramyxoviruses serologically distinct from NDV. Its perfectly isolates by serotypes & prototypes identification.

Serotypes

Serology defined as distinct variation within a species of microorganism (like bacteria virus mycoplasma etc) which distinguish among immune cells of different individuals. The word serology comes from serum of blood. For examples salmonella is a species but Salmonella pullorum & salmonella typhi serologically distinguishable two pathogens of salmonella species.

Serological test of Paramyxoviridae

To date, haemagglutination inhibition (HI), immunodouble diffusion, serum neutralization (SN), neuraminidase inhibition, other serological tests and structural and genetic properties have been used to show 11 distinct groups of avian paramyxoviruses.

 The serotypes have been termed Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1 to APMV-11), APMV-1 being NDV.

Nomenclature of Paramyxoviridae

The method of nomenclature used for influenza A isolates has been adopted for avian paramyxoviruses so that an isolate is named by: (1) serotype, (2) species or type of bird from which it was isolated, (3) geographical location of isolation, (4) reference number or name and (5) year of isolation.

Prototypes of Paramyxoviridae

Prototype defined as early types, sample,model  of Newcastle virus strain & later details learn from it. Prototype strains of each serotype are listed with the usual natural host and the disease signs seen in affected poultry.


NDV was first isolated in 1926 from chickens in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, from which the name was derived, and for 30 years remained the only known avian paramyxovirus. However, since the early 1970s innumerable isolations have been made from avian species of paramyxoviruses serologically distinct from NDV.

Poultry Disease, 6th edition

With the exception of APMV-6 viruses, which have occasionally been isolated from turkeys, and APMV-7 viruses, which have been isolated from turkeys and ostriches in the USA .

Disease in poultry has been associated only with viruses of APMV-1, APMV-2 and APMV-3 serotypes and these will be considered in more detail


Poultry Disease, 6th edition

Prototype strains  of Paramyxoviridae

Prototypes & Virus strainUsual Natural HostDisease produced in poultry
AVMP-1 (Newcastle diseaseNumerusVaries from extremely pathogenic to inapparent, depending on strain and host infected
APMV-2/chicken/California/Yucaipa/56Turkey & chicken Mild respiratory disease or egg production passerines problems; severe if exacerbation occurs
1. APMV-3*/turkey/Wisconsin/68TurkeyMild respiratory disease or egg production passerines problems; severe if exacerbation occurs
2. APMV-3*/parakeet/ Netherlands/449/75Psittacines & PasserinesNone Known

APMV-4/duck/Hong Kong/D3/75

Ducks & Geese
None Known
APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/ Kunitachi/74 Budgerigars and related birds
No Infection in poultry reported
APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/199/77/Turkey Ducks & Geese
Mild respiratory disease & slightly elevated mortality in Turkeys
APMV-7/dove/Tennessee/4/75Pegions & Doves Mild respiratory disease in Turkey, Infection of Ostriches reprted
APMV-8/goose/Delaware/1053/76Ducks & Geese
No Infection in poultry reported
APMV-9/domestic duck/ New York/22/78DucksNone Known
APMV-10/Rock Hopper/Falkland Islands/324/2007Hock hopper penguineNo Infection in poultry reported
APMV-11/Common Snipe/France/ 100212/2010Commen snipe (Gallingo galligo)No Infection in poultry reported
How many time required to identified NDV serologically?

It required 44 years to identified NDV to paramyxovirus serologically.

Are paramyxoviridae causes disease in humen?

Yes, paramyxoviridae causes disease in humen.


What are common diseases caused paramyxoviridae in humen?

Common disease are measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus.

Source: Poultry disease, 6th edition

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