Poultry cephalosporin is a new name in the poultry industry worldwide. It is being necessary to introduce into the poultry field due to traditional antibiotics is being resistance day by day. Cephalosporin group is a semisynthetic antibiotic and derived from the cephalosporin-C.
It is chemically related to penicillin. It has a nucleus which consists of a B- lactam ring fused with a dihydrothiazine ring, (7-amino-cephalosporins acid).
different side chains at position seven of the β-lactam ring (alter the spectrum of activity) and at position three of dihydrothiazine ring (affecting pharmacokinetics). A large number of semisynthetic compounds have been produced.
Mode of action
There are all groups of cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mechanism of action as penicillin. Its inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Nonetheless, It binds to different proteins than those which bind penicillins. This may explain differences in the spectrum, potency and lack of cross-resistance.
It has been conventionally divided into 4 generations. The four-generation is originated has been sequential order of evaluation, Interestingly, It takes into consideration the overall antibacterial spectrum as well as potency.
- First-generation- Cefazolin, Cephalexin, Cefadroxil.
- Second-generation cephalosporins- Cefuroxime, Cefoxitin, Cefaclor, Cefuroxime, axetil, Cefprozil.
- Third-generation cephalosporins- Cefotaxime, Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefoperazone, Cefixime, Cefpodoxime, proxetil, Cefdinir, Ceftibuten, Ceftamet, pivoxil
- Fourth-generation cephalosporins- Cefepime, Cefpirome
- As alternatives to penicillins for Enteric infection, upper respiratory and cutaneous infections, one of the first generation compounds may be used in poultry
- Penicillinase producing staphylococcal infections in poultry
- Fowl Typhoid: Currently, ceftriaxone and cefoperazone injecting Intramusclur are the fastest acting and most reliable drugs for the poultry enteric fever.
- It is preferring over fluoroquinolones (especially in chicks) for empirical therapy. since many S. Typhi strains are resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole. Such as ceftiofur sodium is indicating for the early chick mortality and have excellent activity in the field
- Septicaemias causes by gram-negative organisms: an aminoglycoside may be combined with a cephalosporin.
- Mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections such as CRD. CCRD is infected along with Low pathogenic infection, Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle disease, etc
Cephalosporins generally well tolerate but are more toxic than penicillin.
Pain & Thrombophlebitis
Pain after i.m. injection occurs with many cephalosporins, but some can be injected i.m., while others are injected. Thrombophlebitis of the injected veins can occur.
Diarrhea due to alteration of gut ecology or irritative effect is more common with orally administered compounds like ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefixime, and parenteral cefoperazone, which is largely excreted in bile.
Hypersensitivity reactions are the most important adverse effects of cephalosporins. Manifestations are similar to penicillin, but the incidence is lower. Rashes are the most frequent manifestation, but anaphylaxis, angioedema, asthma, and urticaria have also occurred. About 10% of patients allergic to penicillin show cross-reactivity with cephalosporins.
Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are rare adverse effects reported with ceftazidime and some others.
A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5th-edition