Poultry management is defined as a multifactorial practice of rearing production techniques that help to maximize the efficiency of production. Sound poultry management activities are very essential to optimize production. Scientific poultry management aims at maximizing returns with minimum investment.
Poultry farming is the form of animal husbandry which raises domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese to produce meat or eggs for food.
Types of Poultry Management
According to housing system of poultry, poultry management fundamentally 4 types
- Free Range poultry Management
- Semi intensive poultry Management
- Folding Unit poultry Management
- Intensive Poultry management
Some Important poultry management practices
the management of poultry involves some basic points which is regular maintained under farming condition. the common practices are brooder management before the arrival of chicks, water management, incubator management, rearing materials management, etc. list and explain the various management system of poultry production is given below-
1. Brooding Management
Brooding Management of chicks is a critical task for chicks especially before and after arrival in the broader house. If the farmers fail to provide appropriate conditions before landing chicks in the brooder house, the business would lose at the endpoint.
Some basic points about brooding management
- All necessary items such as litter, paper, chick guard, water, hover, food container should be placed in the proper place three hours in advance.
- Turn on the hover lights two to three hours in advance and check the thermometer readings an hour later. Normally, set the lights according to the weather. For instance, 1watt/chicks are enough for the summer or hot season and 2-3 watt/ chicks for the winter season.
- Half an hour before the baby arrives, lightly placed the paper around and inside the brooder with a probiotic or without soluble in water.
- The baby should be placed in the proper place for 5 minutes before the baby arrives. Try to place the broader area in the middle of the shed.
- After the baby arrives, put the baby on the farm before placing the hoover with the box for about 5 minutes.
- Then weigh each box with the baby and record in the box with the box number followed by the removal of the empty box weight and you will gain the weight of the baby one day.
2. Water Management
Water is an important factor for Broiler chicken. As a faster growth within a short time, the water requirement for Broiler chicken is very crucial. The general function of water in broiler and other living organisms is to transport Oxygen, nutrients, drugs vaccines, and other physiologic activities to maintain proper health conditions.
Water must be free from infectious pathogens (such as virus, bacteria, fungus, protozoa, etc), heavy metals ( Na, K, iron, P, CA, etc), soil, urine, fecal material, etc. water deprivation may lead to coccidiosis.
Water quality management
Following steps must be conducted to ensure standard water quality, hygienic, pathogen-free, dust, and other particles:
Wash and disinfect chick drinkers daily. Use a reliable water sanitizer like chlorine to control disease-causing organisms in the water. Ensure the drinkers are filled with fresh water after washing and never allow the drinkers to go dry.
Distribute drinkers evenly throughout the whole house, alternating them with the feeders so that they are easily accessible to all birds. The furthest distance to the next waterer or drinker should be 1.5 meters.
Provide one chick fount for 75 chicks during the first week and gradually replace them with the regular drinkers. Always adjust the drinkers and feeders levels as the birds grow to ensure that the equipment is always slightly above the level of the birds’ backs to minimize spillage.
4. Litter management
Litter that is too dry and dusty can be one of many indications that the birds may not be drinking enough. Too much dusty material may lead to respiratory problems.
Suitable litter material like sawdust and paddy husk should be spread to a length of 5 cm depending upon their availability and cost. Moldy material should not be used. The litter should be stirred at frequent intervals to prevent caking. Wet litters if any should be removed immediately and replaced by dry new litter. This prevents ammoniacal odor.
5. Coccidiosis prevention and control
Coccidiosis is a protozoan disease that is caused by Eimeria spp in poultry. Its a very important disease that is more related to the economy.
Parasite defined as an organism that lives in or on an organism of another species (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other’s expense. Coccidia is a parasite that a host for completing the life cycle & survived into poultry.
It is prevented by the proper use of coccidiostat in feed and control by the water medication. the common feed coccidiostat are maduramycin, semduramycin, monensin, lasalocid, clpidole, etc
during the outbreak, water medication should be required by the various types of anticoccidial drugs. example Toltrazuril, diclazuril, sulfar drugs etc.
6. Feeding management
Proper feeder line-height corresponding to the height of the birds helps to reduce feed wastage and mixing feed with litter, and it ensures that all birds have access to feed.
Feeding Programs of Poultry
Every chicken takes feed from day-old until marketing continues under a feeding program that is specific to specific. Every chicken and commercial species have been followed limited feeding programs or schedule at a definite time. Now, we discussed various feeding programs of differents species and measures How Much Chicken Feed Per Day on a particular breed.
Feeding programs for Broilers
- Broiler chicks – fed ad libitum for 42 to 56 d to an average weight of 4 to 5 lb.
- Feed represents 60 to 75% of the total production cost. Fed conversion – about 1.5-2.0
- Use a 3-stage feeding program (starter, grower, and finisher) – The starter for the first 2 to 3 wk, the grower for about 2 wk, and the finisher for the remainder.
- Higher concentrations of vitamins (A, D, E, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin, and B12) and Mn & Zn would be required if eggs are to be used for hatching.
- White Leghorn – Need about 18 g of protein/bird/d to support optimum egg production, thus with a 15% CP diet, must consume ≈ 25 to 26 lb of feed/100 birds/day.
- Met – The first limiting amino acid and economical to use synthetic Met & its analogs
- Ca requirement – Varies with the age, ambient temperature, rate of lay, and egg size, but a general recommendation is 3.4 g Ca/d & 3.8 g Ca/d after 40 wk of age.
7. Lighting Management
The manner in which lights are installed in the poultry house has a role in their efficiency. Some of the important points regarding fixing bulbs in poultry houses are,
- The distance between bulbs should be 1½ times the distance from the bulb to the bird’s level.
- The distance from the bulbs to the outer edges of the house should be only ½ the distance between bulbs.
- In a cage system, the bulbs should be placed in such a way that their rays fall on the feed and on the birds.
- Clean reflectors increase the light intensity at bird level by 50%, compared with no reflector.
- Avoid cone shape reflectors since they confine the light rays to a limited area. Better to use a flat-type reflector with a rounded edge.
- In the case of a deep litter system, the bulb is to be placed at 7-8’ height whereas in a cage house, keep it in an aisle.
- Avoid hanging bulbs by a cord in open houses
- Very dirty bulbs emit about 1/3 less light than clean bulbs.
- Light bulbs should be cleaned once in two weeks.
Classification of lighting programs for laying hens
According to photoperiod, the classification of lighting for laying hens programs for the optimum layer production all year round is classified into two major classes-
1.) Hemeral lighting programs
The Hemeral lighting programs consist of 24-h periods divided into light phases (photoperiod or photophase) and dark phases (scotoperiod or scotophase). Hemeral programs are used in open-sided houses, which take advantage of natural light (Campos, 2000).
2. Ahemeral Lighting Programs
When the total photoperiod or light period is not equal to 24 hours, then it is called Ahemeral Lighting Programs. they are various types of ahemeral lighting cycling worldwide. It is mainly in two forms- a Longer day (14 hr light + 14 hr dark) and a shorter day (11 hr light + 11 hr dark).
Lighting Management For Pullet
There are some controversial opinions on Lighting Management For Pullet. the lighting exact schedule for pullet layer chicken in an open house system is confusing for a small pullet producer.
Ancient opinion on Lighting Management For Pullet
Some farmers believe that it must be followed by the individual breed management guide while doing not due to they have been facing a problem when maintaining the pullet management manual.
8. Floor space Management
Floor space of 0·05 m2 should be provided per chick to start with, which should be increased by 0·05 m2 after every 4 weeks until the pullets are about 20 weeks of age.
For broilers, at least 0·1 m2 of floor space for female chicks and 0·15 m2 for male chicks should be provided till 8 weeks of age. Raising broiler pullets and cockerel chicks in separate pens may be beneficial.
9. Environmental management
- General environmental management of the barn includes many components, such as temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, and lighting.
- Understanding that these components work both separately and together can help to guide your management practices.
10 Disease Management
Certain diseases have the potential to decimate a region’s poultry industry. Diseases can be categorized by common causes, such as genetic, mechanical, toxic, and nutritional. Infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Parasitic diseases are caused by protozoa, worms, and external parasites such as mites and lice.
The common bacterial diseases are salmonellosis, E.coli infection, Infectious coryza, Necrotic enteritis, fowl cholera, gall bacterium infection, Mycoplasma infection, Avian listeriosis, Botulism, Ulcerative enteritis, Pseudomonas infection, etc. these diseases are easily prevented and controlled by antibiotics.
Diseases of the virus in poultry
the common disease of viruses in poultry are NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AVIAN INFLUENZA, MARE”S DISEASE, INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS, INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE, ETC.
these diseases are easily controlled by the proper vaccination.
POULTRY MANIA ABOUT POULTRY MANAGEMENT ARTICLE
Rearing Materials For Chicken
Rearing Materials For Chicken as chicken raised or bred for their use, or for pleasure or for profit, often for food. Substances used for maintaining activities eg water, feeding, lighting others during the rearing of chicken.
the feeding system is processed by which chicken fed their feed in the rearing system. Commonly used material’s called feeder.
Types of feeder:
For open shed broiler that rearing in litter system, it’s mainly three type
1. Smaller feeder
2. Medium type feeder
3. large type
Determination of Eggs quality
Egg quality defined as the inherent characteristics of an egg that determine its degree of superiority and which is liked by customers. The producers fetch a better price for the good quality products and customers always prefer the product of assured quality.
The procedure of determining the quality of eggs is essential and which are easily evaluated by the two distinct criteria. Now we discuss the system to determine the quality of eggs. It is done by
a) External qualities of eggs
2) Internal Egg Qualities
The Best Way To PRESERVATION OF EGGS
The Objective of the preservation of eggs to know the various strategies for safeguarding eggs. It is for improving the keeping nature of this transitory nourishment thing.
There are different methodologies for the protection of eggs, and in like manner the prerequisites are unique. So necessities are referenced while explaining the singular technique.