poultry feed

Poultry Nutrition

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What is Poultry Nutrition?

Poultry Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological mechanism by which poultry uses food to support its life. All the Nutrition is coming from any feed components of poultry. poultry feed is essential—it provides vital nutrients for survival, and helps the body function and stay healthy.

Components Of Poultry Nutrition

There are 6 essential nutrients of nutrition that the body needs to function properly in poultry. Nutrients are compounds feeds essential to life and health, providing us with energy, the building blocks for repair and growth, and substances necessary to regulate chemical processes. The major six components of Poultry nutrition are

  • Water
  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

WATER

Water is the largest single constituent of animal tissue, amounting to approximately 58% in chickens and 66% in eggs.

The function of water in poultry
  • It is used for temperature regulation
  • Water serves as a medium and transportation. agent for dissolved substances and it gives animals form and shape.
  • It is the cheapest and one of the most important of all nutrients.

Water consumption in poultry

Water ConsumptionS by Chickens and Turkeys of Different Ages (1000 Birds per Day)

Age
(Weeks)
Chicken Broilers
(gallon)
Egg strain Pullet
(gallon)
Turkey
(gallon)
16510
2121020
3171230
4341740
5382250
6472560
7562875
8643095
935115
1038 125
1140150
42160
1245
15
20
35Laying or breeding50Male185
Female 119
How many Litres of water does a chicken drink?

These amounts of water intake vary depending on the food consumption, temperature, humidity, activity of the chicken, and nature of the food. One rule is that poultry will consume 1.75 units of water by weight for each unit weight of feed consumed at temperatures below 75°F (24°C) and 3.0 units of water per unit weight of feed at
temperatures of 95°F (35°C).

What kind of water do chickens need?

Chicken must need Fresh, clean, uncontaminated water should be easily and readily accessible, both in quantity and location. For starting chicks, one fount per hundred chicks or an equivalent space depending on watering equipment used, evenly distributed and close to the heat sources, is considered a minimum.

Cool, not cold or hot, water is the most desirable. Extremely cold or hot water decreases water consumption and may lead to dehydration and slow growth of the chicks.

Water Quality For Poultry

quality is also important for Water in poultry and chicken. Water should be tested to see that salts, pesticides, and microorganisms are at an acceptable level and that the water is palatable to poultry. Water that adversely affects growth, reproduction, or productivity cannot be used.

The birds will not grow, reproduce, or stay healthy and in some cases, they may absorb harmful chemical residues, for example, pesticides, in their tissues.

Drinking water quality standards for poultry

Standards of drinking water quality for poultry-based on the presence of three chemical

Chemical NameTolerate level
(PPM)
Safety Margin
(PPM)
Nitrate300100
Nitrites10010
Sulfatesabove 500below 500
Salts5000below 2700

Impact of Contaminated water on Poultry
  • Drinking water from wells, farm ponds, and other sources contaminated with bacteria not only can cause disease but also can influence growth and the general well-being of the flock at a subclinical level.
  • Contamination can occur not only at the well or pond source but also in the drinking fountains if not kept clean and sanitary. Bacteria readily reduce nitrates to nitrites.

Can chickens drink chlorinated water?

Yes. Chlorination is the most practical way to eliminate contamination and oxidative changes. Water provided to poultry ideally should be of a quality fit for human consumption.

PROTEIN

This is usually the most expensive feed material, but the one most likely to bring profitable results if properly used.

Protein from animal sources – milk, liver, fish scraps, meat or meat meal – is more effective in promoting growth and egg production, than protein from most vegetable sources.

Grains alone are entirely inadequate in amount and kind of protein. Excess protein has a forcing effect which may be detrimental to poultry of any age.

CARBOHYFRATES

These are the starchy materials in grains and grain products. Only a starved flock will lack for carbohydrates. They supply fuel and energy, the excess going to form fat in the body or egg.

FATS

Some fat is present in practically all feed materials. An excess of fat from fish oil or meat and fish products may cause digestive upset in birds, and lead to such disorders as fatty degeneration and “crazy chick disease”.

MINERALS

Calcium carbonate (from limestone or gravel, clam or oyster shells, bone, etc) in the presence of Vitamin D, forms most of the eggshell.

Calcium and phosphorous make up the major part of the bone; but excess phosphorous (from bone materials) may immobilize the manganese in the diet, leading to crooked bones and slipped tendons in chicks and poults.

Salt supplies some essential minerals. The green feed contains small amounts of certain highly important minerals.

VITAMINE

The naturally speedy growth of young poultry soon reveals any vitamin deficiencies in their rations; hatching of eggs is a critical test of the vitamin content of a breeder diet.

POULAR POST ON POULTRY NUTRITION

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Feed formulation | Standard Requirements

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