Poultry Vaccines defined as biological components ( antigens) used for developed active or acquired or active immunity to specific diseases poultry.vaccine is needed to develop active immunization which protect the poultry in a disease outbreak situation.
Purposes of poultry vaccination
Poultry Vaccines and vaccine programs vary widely in their effectiveness and this is frequently by design.
Some vaccines are designed to incite high levels of immunity to protect birds in the face of aggressive endemic disease challenges, such as viscerotropic, velogenic Newcastle disease. Basically, two reasons lies to poultry vaccine are
Poultry vaccines production are used to prevent or reduce problems that can occur from infection of a field strain of a disease organism
A second reason for the vaccination of poultry flocks is to hyper-immunize hens to maximize maternally derived antibody passed through the egg to the hatching progeny.
Chicks frequently receive up to 3 weeks of protection from maternal antibodies permit their immune system to mature to a level capable of transparently an efficient active immune response.
if exposed to a potentially harmful virus or bacteria. Antibodies are not always completely protective but for viruses such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), many areas of the world have found maternal antibodies a very useful tool in IBD prevention and control.
Types of Poultry Vaccine
Poultry vaccines typically characterized as live or inactivated. But, it is being updated to discover new vaccines for better immunization.for instance, recombinant vaccine, In ovo vaccine, cell culture vaccine, etc. however, this type of vaccine not familiar to the world now. Therefore we just discussed two types of vaccine
Live vaccines are widely used throughout the world because they are commonly effective when it would be mass applied, and they are relatively economical. Immunity from live vaccines is generally short-lived, particularly following initial exposure. Some exceptions to this exist for vaccines such as laryngotracheitis, fowl pox, and Marek’s disease.
Inactivated vaccines or killed vaccines used in poultry are generally whole bacteria or virus preparations combined with an adjuvant that is designed for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. this type of vaccine is frequently, but not always, used in commercial egg layer and breeding birds to stimulate long-lasting immunity and/or antibody levels to specific antigens.
Inactivated vaccines generally consist of two distinct components, often referred to as aqueous and adjuvant phases, emulsified into a homologous liquid.
General characteristics of Live vaccine
- The live vaccine induces the rapid onset of immunity
- . Tissue reaction commonly referred to as a “vaccine reaction” is possible and frequently visible in a variety of tissues.
- The live poultry vaccine contains a smaller quantity of antigen. Vaccination response relies on multiplication within the bird.
- It Can be mass administered—drinking water, spray.
- There is no need to add any Adjuvant in poultry live vaccines.
- Susceptible to existing antibody present in the bird.
- In immune bird, a booster vaccination is ineffective
- Local immunity stimulated (i.e., trachea or gut).
- The danger of vaccine contamination (e.g., egg drop syndrome, reticuloendotheliosis virus).
- Relatively limited combinations—due to interference of multiple microbes given at the same time (e.g., infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease virus, and laryngotracheitis).
General characteristics of killed vaccine
- Generally slower onset of immunity
- There is no microbe replication; therefore, no tissue reaction outside that which is adjuvant dependent.
- Combinations are less likely to interfere.
- Generally slower onset of immunity
- A large amount of antigen. No multiplication after administration.
- Almost always injected.
- Adjuvanting killed vaccines is frequently necessary
- More capable of eliciting an immune response in the face of an existing antibody.
- In the immune bird, additional immune response frequently is seen.
- Local immunity may be re-stimulated if used as a
- booster but poor if not a secondary response.
- Little danger of vaccine contamination.
Method of the Poultry vaccine Application
Application Technique of poultry vaccines
The result of the vaccination totally depends on the application technique. According to Diseases of Poultry books 12th edition, Improper vaccine application is the most common reason vaccines and vaccine programs fail. With the success and growth of the poultry industry throughout the world came tremendous challenges in the efficient and economic application of poultry vaccines’. There are several types of poultry vaccines methods are discussed below.