Coccidiosis in poultry

Coccidiosis

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Coccidiosis

Coccidiosis is probably the most common and devastating disease in modern poultry production. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. These are obligated intracellular parasites with complex life cycles including sexual and asexual stages.

Causes of Coccidiosis

Various types of Eimeria spp which parasitize specific portions of the intestinal tract of chickens and other animals. factors affecting causing are such as environment, nutrition, temperature, humidity, ventilation, and disease factors associated with Emeria species.

While Eimeria eggs (oocysts) can be mechanically transported by wild birds, these parasites are host specific and thus wild birds do not serve as a biological reservoir.

Host Range

Its mainly found in animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, horses, swine, and poultry (chickens and turkeys). Dog and cats are not hosting but infections occur when transmit by the mechanical carrier.it is a common problem in farming environments. There 12 species found in cattle, seven species in chicken and turkey, 11 species in sheep and 9 species in goat.

Life Cycle of Emeria spp

The life cycle of Emeria spp is the main causal agent of coccidiosis in poultry and animals. Life cycles in all species are more or less the same. Emeria is an obligate intracellular parasite with complex life cycles including sexual and asexual stages.

Emeria life cycle
Emeria life cycle

Related Article

The life cycle of Emeria spp

Emeria spp sites of infection

Stages of the Life cycle in Emeria spp

Coccidiosis in poultry

Coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry worldwide and most forms are characterized by enteritis. Most coccidial in poultry belongs to the genus Eimeria. All types of poultry affected at the field level.

Range of host

coccidiosis causal agent named Emeria spp is a common problem in farming environments. there are 7 species found in chicken and two species found in turkey. Tyzzeria perniciosa causing coccidiosis in duck. Eimeria anseris in goslings nevertheless, game birds are also affected by coccidiosis. the most common species of emeria which affecting game birds called pheasants and partridges are Eimeria colchici and Eimeria legionensis.

Economic Importance of coccidiosis in poultry

coccidiosis is especially important in intensive broiler poultry operations. Apart from causing disease, subclinical infections cause impaired feed conversion and since feed costs comprise some 70% of the cost of producing broiler chickens, the economic impact of coccidiosis is considerable. For example, it has been estimated that the total cost of chicken coccidiosis in the UK in 1995 was £38.5 million (Williams 1999).

Causes of Coccidiosis In Poultry

The most and common etiological agent causing coccidiosis is Emeria spp in poultry. There are 11 species are responsible for causing coccidiosis in poultry. But, some reason two species have been deducted and nine species are considering nowadays. The most common species are-

E. acervulina E. mivati E. necatrix E. maxima E. tenella E. Brunetti

Related Articles

Emeria acervulina- Clinical symptoms and Treatment

Emeria tenella in poultry- Clinical symptoms and Treatment

Sites of infection in the intestine in poultry

These nine species of coccidiosis which causing coccidiosis in poultry. Every species has a specific site of infection in the intestines of the poultry. Therefore, concurrent infection is always persisting of coccidia in chicken and poultry.

The common sites of infection Emeria spp are

Duodenum-Emeria acervulina

Mid Intestine- Emeria Maxima

Cecum- Emeria tenella

Related article- Sites of infection of Emeria SPP

What are the symptoms of coccidiosis?

In poultry, Coccidiosis is generally acute in onset and is characterized by depression, ruffled plumage, , and diarrhea. weight loss due to Eimeria spp affect the intestine making it prone to other diseases (necrotic enteritis) and reducing the ability of this organ to absorb nutrients

Coccidiosis in poultry
Coccidiosis is generally acute in onset and is characterized by depression, ruffled plumage in poultry

Bloody diarrhea in poultry
blood in feces
Coccidiosis in poultry
feathers & skin became yellowish due to bilirubin high bilirubin levels on this site in 21 days broiler chicken

Coccidiosis in poultry
Comb & eyelid became yellowish in color due to destruction of red blood cell in coccidiosis

Birds infected with E. tenella show pallor of the comb and wattles and blood-stained cecal droppings.

In humans, common clinical symptoms are persistent diarrhea, pale skin, anemia, and weight, etc.

Treatment

Coccidiosis treatment has given by the two scientific way by the feed treatment and water medication.
Infeed, coccidiostat uses at the required amount and maintain shuttle programme. The most common coccidiostat are Monensin, Narasin, Maduramycin, salinomycin, samduramycin.

Water medication is commonly using by the diclazuril, Toltrazuril, amprolium and suphaclozine sodium etc.

In others species except chicken turkey,

A favourable response has been reported after the use of sulfonamides in drinking water at the same level or half the level recommended for chickens. Clazuril, a close relative of diclazuril (which is approved for use in chick-
ens), was introduced in 1987 in France and Belgium for specific use in pigeons. This product is highly effective in treating coccidiosis in pigeons.

Related publication

Poultry Mania presents exclusive publication about Coccidiosis publication, where you can easily find out causal agent, clinical signs, postmortem findings, control, prevention, treatment, epidemiology & vaccination about coccidiosis. publications below

Acute Coccidiosis: Clinical Signs

Acute Coccidiosis: Postmortem Findings

Per Acute Coccidiosis: Postmortem findings

Coccidiosis In Chicks: Postmortem Findings

Per Acute Coccidiosis: Postmortem Findings

Clinical Signs Of Coccidiosis In Chicks

Postmortem Findings in Chicks Of Coccidiosis

Toltrazuril In poultry

Coccidiosis: Site Of Infection Of Emeria spp

Coccidiosis In poultry

Emeria acervulina In Chicken

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