Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type. The most common symptoms are diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and vomiting. This typically occurs between 12 hours and 36 hours after exposure with symptoms lasting from two to seven days. Occasionally more significant disease can result in dehydration. The old, young, and others with a weakened immune system are more likely to develop severe disease. Specific types of Salmonella can result in typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever.
There are two species of Salmonella: Salmonella bongori and Salmonella enterica with many subspecies. Infection is usually spread by eating contaminated meat, eggs, or milk. Other foods may spread the disease if they have come into contact with manure. A number of pets including cats, dogs, and reptiles can also carry and spread the infection. Diagnosis is by a stool test.
Efforts to prevent the disease include proper preparation and cooking of food. Mild disease typically does not require specific treatment. More significant cases may require treatment of electrolyte problems and intravenous fluid replacement. In those at high risk or in whom the disease has spread outside the intestines, antibiotics are recommended.
Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of diarrhea globally. In 2015, 90,300 deaths occurred from non-typhoidal and 178,000 deaths from typhoidal salmonellosis. In the United States about 1.2 million cases and 450 deaths occur from non–typhoidal salmonellosis a year. In Europe it is the second most common foodborne disease after campylobacteriosis.