Allopurinol for poultry is being used extensively in the field. It is considered as a modern drug to treat gout in poultry. It is a purine analog, is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine and inhibits xanthine oxidase enzyme.
It acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with the clinical application for the reduction in uric acid formation during hyperuricemia or gout in poultry. It is also known as uricostatic drugs.
Uricosuric drugs defined as substances that increase the excretion of uric acid in the urine, thus reducing the concentration of uric acid in the blood plasma of poultry.
Mode of action
It is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally present purine in the body) and is an enzyme inhibitor called xanthine oxidase which responsible for the formation of uric acid in the kidney of poultry. Therefore, It is inhibiting xanthine oxidase.
Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine resulting in the production of uric acid. In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are converted to closely related purine ribotides adenosine and guanosine monophosphates.
Increased levels of these ribotides cause feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. It is, therefore, decreasing both uric acid formation and purine synthesis.
The primary use of allopurinol is to treat hyperuricemia (excess uric acid in blood plasma) , in other word called gout & its complications in chicks and other poultry.
The principle veterinary use for allopurinol is for the prophylactic treatment of recurrent gout, uric acid uroliths & hyperuricosuria oxalate uroliths in poultry. It is also used to treat gout in birds.
There are two types of formulation available in the market 5% and 2.5% allopurinol as a powder form.
For 5% powder form
For the treatment purpose dosage at 5-15 mg/kg body weight and severe cases dosages may higher
For preventive measures dosage at 2.5-10 mg/kg body weight
For 2.5% powder form
For the treatment purpose dosage at 20-25 mg/kg body weight
For preventive measures dosage at 10-15 mg/kg body weight
If it is applied overdosages, the following may be observed in poultry
Worsen gout symptoms
Blood in urine etc
In the following stages, it should be contra-indicated in case of poultry
- Dehydration in the summer season
- chronic heart failure like spike mortality ascites etc
- liver problems for instances of Fatty liver syndrome,
It is available as a 100 gm powder sachet to gout in poultry in the market