Treatment of visceral gout in poultry
Before we discuss about the treatment of visceral gout in poultry, we can discuss on a gout of poultry in a brief. Gout is a metabolic disease in poultry which is caused by the infectious and noninfectious agent disturbing uric acid cycle in the poultry. In humans, gout defined as an enzyme deficient which responsible for uric acid metabolism in the human body.
In case, of poultry, it is called rate deposition in the visceral organs and joints. There are two types of visceral gout that have been counted in the poultry. Visceral urate deposition one of them and it occurs from day old to mature ages.
Broiler birds are most susceptible among all species of poultry due to higher growth within a short period. The term rate deposition comes from uric acid which is chalky whitish in color. due to the lack of a uricase enzyme, it can not convert water-soluble substance.
that is why it remains unchanged in faces with normal feces visceral gout a common phenomenon in the poultry compared to articular gout.it is most devastating if it can be affected early age of life.
Factors affecting Treatment of visceral gout
Treatment of visceral gout depends on the age from one week, it is considering the most growing stages for poultry species. If the birds feeding pellet form feed. Protein materials are really quickly digestible. In favorable conditions, synthesis of protein is going higher amount in the body of poultry.
Protein synthesis maintains by the pouring which nitrogen base which is structural components of DNA and RNA. Pour in the break down in the cell membrane as uric acid. In this way, the production of uric acid higher at earlier age and birds can be affected by metabolically in the field.
Due to the shorter period, there is less opportunity to develop articular gout. Treatment of visceral gout really challenging due to affecting birds getting mortality at a sudden.
Weather condition actually, Avian gout causing by metabolic reason basically observed in the same weather condition.
In the early winter season, when temperatures will fluctuate gradually, birds became slightly water deprives late at night.
Water depriving birds became affect excessive urate deposition in their kidney tissue. Over precipitate of uric acid crystals causing gout in this season. Others pathogenesis developing gout is a lowering Ph at the urinary system in poultry. Uric acid is the mostly excretion from the body at 6.5-7.5 ph in the kidney.
In between range, if deviate in the kidney of poultry, there is more chance to accumulate uric acid this leading to gout in poultry.
In the summer season, the mechanism of action developing urate more less the same. But, temperature varies to develop it in the er season.
When the temperature rises above 27° C, birds are starting to pant that mean, more needs to functioning normal physiological function. Except, natural air in the environment, water also supplied oxygen to birds due to it is containing oxygen and hydrogen ion.
If the oxygen level falls in higher volume there is establishing alkalosis in the respiratory tract of poultry. It means lowering ph at kindly leading urate accumulation in the poultry. In an open shed system, temperature control is more challenging due to farmers are not more conscious about it.
Secondly, an economic condition also considerable. In summer, Season farmers need more than 12 fans which set up 7-8 feet in a single row system and two rows in a double cage system for 1000 birds.
For the rainy season, farmers need an extra layer of polythene sheet which installs 5 feet away from the border of the poultry farming the weather uncontrolled from the farmer capacity, treatment is not affected at all.
High calcium diet with low phosphorous results in precipitation of calcium, sodium urate crystals. In addition excessive use of Sodium bicarbonate or excessive Sodium, low vitamin A diet, high protein diet (30%) and water deprivation due to any reason leads to concentration of uric acid and other minerals in the blood and consequently later in the kidney.
Others factors including poultry feed classification and composition such as unrefined fishmeal where purine content is high, imbalance crude protein, Calcium-phosphorus ratio calculation inappropriate,
For infectious factors causing gout treatment incurable click here
Classification Of drugs
Treatment of visceral gout also moderately depends on the classification of drugs. Drug for visceral gout According to symptoms of gout, it is two types, acute and chronic in poultry and the human.
In an acute attack, the main priority of drugs is inhibited urate deposition as well as reduce pain and inflammation in and joint tissue in poultry.
Classification on the treatment of visceral gout in poultry mainly divided into three class
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs)
It is a class of analgesic medication that is mostly used to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation in poultry. Largely, NSAIDS are used in poultry as an over the counter drugs to treat visceral due to absence of proper guideline in poultry. NSAIDs commonly used for Gout are
Due to the higher cost, these drugs not very familiar all over the world for treating visceral gout in poultry.
Colchicine is an alkaloid isolated from colchicum autumnale including anti-gout and anti-inflammatory.
The exact mechanism of action by which colchicine exerts its outcome still unknown in poultry. But some researcher believes that it is bind tubulin thereby interfering with the polymerization of tubulin, interrupting microtubule dynamics, and disrupting mitosis. This leads to an inhibition of the migration of leukocytes and other inflammatory cells, thereby reducing the inflammatory response to deposited urate crystals.
It is practiced in the field but it is used sporadically in poultry.there is no formalization available for poultry visceral gout but human preparation is available as a 0.6 mg.
the writer has been practicing colchicine for treating visceral gout at 1 tab/60 kg body weight two times daily for 5 days when allopurinol fails on the treatment of visceral gout in poultry.
It defined as a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates including poultry, Two main two classes of corticosteroids like glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes.
The most common corticosteroid are using visceral gout treatment
Among them prednisolone is greatly effective in acute gout in poultry especially chicks ages. There is no exact data about the application of prednisolone but our writer has been practice in visceral gout since 2017.
In severe gouty conditions, the chicken will unable to stand pain due to inflammation in the kidney, the prednisolone comes to favor to relief pain in visceral gout in poultry.No formulation still unavailable for treating visceral gout in poultry. But it has a human preparation both in the tablet at 5,10, 20 mg and syrup form at each 5ml contain Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate USP equivalent to Prednisolone 5 mg.
In poultry, the written has been practice syrup form at 1ml/birds at day 7-14 and 1,5ml/bird 7-19 days with other drugs which largely reduce pain and affected birds became recover normal position within a short period of time.
Allopurinol is defined as a chemically 1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazole [3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one. It is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Allopurinol is considered as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor which inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase from functioning correctly. Xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid.
It is commercially available in a market as a powdered form for treating gout in all countries in the world. Normal recommended dose of poultry is 2 mg-6 mg/kg body weight.
But doses may increase according to veterinarian direction. Normal formulation made by the pharmaceutical company is 25 mg/gram. For 100o birds, 1-2gm/liter drinking water thrice daily controlling acute gout mortality in the field.
Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of poultry with gout suffering from hyperuricemia and is used in its chronic gout in poultry. It is considering best drug compared to allopurinol due to allopurinol acts only purine sources uric acid but febuxostat acts on both sources of uric acid in poultry,
if you are facing visceral gout in poultry but not control with allopurinol, you should with febuxostat thus curing visceral gout within a short period from both sources.
Unfortunately, no pharma formulation is available for poultry. In the case of humans, febuxostat 40 mg as a tablet form. The has been applied to the febuxostat 1 tab/60 kg bodyweight continues for 48 hours controlling mortality if it fails to allopurinol.
Sodium bicarbonate known as baking soda is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO₃. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HC003-). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline form but often appears as a fine powder available in the market.
Mode of action of soda-bicarbonate is reducing stomach Ph, leading to increase the alkalinity of the blood of poultry. In this way, blood in uric acid decreased and reduce visceral gout in poultry.
Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid. Vinegar typically contains 5–20 ]acetic acid by volume. For poultry use, It is provided by 5% concentrate. It has numerous applications and has a significant result in acute and chronic visceral gout in poultry.
The exact mechanism of action of vinegar to treat gout but some experts believe that vinegar containing 5% acetic acid lowered blood sugar levels and improved serum lipid profiles by reducing the levels of circulating cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins.
For treating visceral gout casesm 2-3ml/liter drinking water with other drugs has been provided excellent result in the poultry, in some cs=ases, where sporadic mortality 1-2 birds sudden onset. You have no need other drugs just use vinegar that will stop mortality in all types of birds
Probenecid defined as a uricosuric agent used for the treatment of gout usually in combination with other agents in poultry. Probenecid works by interfering with the kidney’s organic anion transporter (OAT), which reclaims uric acid from the urine and returns it to the plasma.
It provides at 2 mg per kg Bodyweight in 24 hrs drinking water for reducing mortality in a gout of poultry.
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