Emeria acervulina is the species of Emeria that causing intestinal coccidiosis in chicken. Emeria acervulina also most common species who responsible for causing intestinal coccidiosis in Chicken.
Emeria acervlunia infection get occurred from 01- 07 days in earlier ages but remain found in 120 weeks layer hens with necrotic enteritis according to field observation.
Oocyst of Emeria acervulina Oocysts are ovoid and often show thinning of the shell at the small end. The average size of oocysts is 18.3 × 14.6 µm, but the range is 17.7–20.2 × 13.7–16.3 µm.
Severity of Emeria acervulina infection may vary with the isolate, the number of oocysts ingested, and the immune state of the bird. Ingestion of 103 , 104 , 105 , or 106 oocysts by young white rock chicks resulted in mild to severe coccidiosis, with lesion scores ranging from 1.1 (103 oocysts) to 4.0 (106 oocysts). Reduction in rate of weight gain was also proportional to the infective dose.
Site of infection: Duodenum & later part of intestine mixed with others species most predominant site of infection of Emeria acervulina in broiler & layer chicken.
Faeces unevenly segregated from it normal structure due to intestinal corrugation
by Emeria Acervulina.
Watery and mucoid droppings may be seen as early as 4 days post exposure in Emeria acervulina.
Excess mucus overlapping with faeces
by Emeria Acervulina during mas feeding. Picture collected from 70 week layer farm after case recoverd by anticoccidial drugs.
Excess mucoid faeces are commonly seen due excess HCL secretion in the intestine followed by starvation by Emeria Acervulina.
Swollen abdominal cavity look like Ascites due to excess intestinal corrugation by
by Emeria Acervulina.
In Emeria acervulina’s Heavy infections often cause lesions to coalesce, and sometimes mortality may result. Light to moderate infections may produce little effect on weight gain and feed conversion but may cause loss of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments from the blood and skin because of reduced absorption in the small intestine. in Emeria acervulina infection.
Adult birds showing frog like posture due to abdominal pain in intestine by Emeria Acervulina.
Chicks are unable to stand up followed by intestinal pain & low feed intake by Emeria Acervulina.
Pasty vent & sometimes prolase may occurred due to excess paristalsis movement by
by Emeria Acervulina.
If Emeria acervulina left untreated properly, Torticolitis seen in the field called chronic Emeria acervulina infection Picture collected from 38 days layer pullet after case recoverd by anticoccidial drugs.
Chicks are huddled due to feeling severe irritating in abdominal cavity by Emeria Acervulina.
White plaques (transversely) most common findings in Emeria acervulina infection. The intestine may be pale and contain watery and mucoid fluid in Emeria acervulina infection.
The intestinal mucosa may be thickened, resulting in poor feed conversion. Egg production may be depressed in laying birds in Emeria acervulina infection.
The gross lesion in light infections is limited to the duodenal loop, with only a few plaques/cm in Emeria acervulina. In heavy infections, lesions may extend some distance through the small intestine, and plaques may overlap or coalesce in Emeria acervulina infection . The plaques are generally smaller in heavy infections due to crowding in Emeria acervulina.
The lesions may be composed of schizonts, gametocytes, and developing oocysts in the duodenum by Emeria acervulina. Microscopy of smears from intestinal lesions usually reveals numerous oocysts and gametocytes of Emeria acervulina varying stage of development.
Which stages more virulent in Emeria acervulina infection?
the macrogametes and developing oocysts stages are more virulent due to rapid multiplication in Emeria acervulina infection.
Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Emeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi. In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Emeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Emeria acervulina infection. Picture collect from 27 weeks Brown layer birds.
Small intestine reveals the ovoid gametocytes of Emeria acervulina in the mucosal cells lining the villi. In moderate to heavy infections, the tips of villi are broken off by Emeria acervulina infection, leading to truncation and fusion of villi and thickening of the mucosa in Emeria acervulina infection. Some epithelial cells may contain more than 1 parasite in Emeria acervulina. Capillaries may be engorged with red blood cells and there is infiltration of granulocytes in the area parasitized in in Emeria acervulina infection. Schiff’s reagent will stain the macrogametes and developing oocysts a brilliant red, because of the polysaccharide used in oocyst wall formation in Emeria acervulina infection
If properly diagnosed, Emeria acervulina infection treated successfully with single antibiotic. Since there are many anticoccidial drugs but they limitation great limitation of application in the field due to their mode of action. Sulphonomide acts on developing shizont & early sexual stages but others anticoccidials acts on deferents stages. Emeria acervulina rapid multiplication trigger by deloiping shizont & later sexual stages.
Sulfaclozine sodium@200mg/kg for 48 hours effective against Emeria acervulina infestion at field in chicken in acute case at broiler & laying chicken in Emeria acervulina infection. If concurrent infection with others Emeria spp like maxima, nicartrix, sulphonomide & toltrazuril 5% may used to killed Emeria acervulina & others spp effectively.
If leison persist with necrotic enteritis, Sulfaclozine sodium combine with lincomycin HCl used succesfully
Articles published after the case has been solved by application of anticoccidial drugs.
Dr Md Ramzan Ali, Consultant (Poultry), Admin@poultrytmania.com