Respiratory disease

Newcastle disease in broiler

Newcastle Disease: Etiology | Clinical Sign | Postmortem Findings | Treatment



Etiology

Newcastle disease is viral disease which caused by Newcastle disease virus under the family of paramyxoviridae. Newecastle disease may not caused by single virus but it caused by closely related group virus that form Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (AMV-1). It’s also serologically related to others Avian Paramyxivirus type 3(AMV-3).  AMV-3 characterized by non segmented, single stranded RNA virus. Newcastle disease also known as Ranikhet disease in southern part of Asia.

Clinical signs

It divided in three categories

Per acute Types

Newcastle disease in poultry.poultrymania.com

There are no clinical sign. Birds became died without clinical sign. died birds showing feverish body with congested abdominal muscles

Cyanosis of comb & wattle are common clinical signs which result from severe viremia in chicken blood where carbon di oxide pretty higher than oxygen. deoxyganate area show cyanosis by Newcastle Disease in poultry.

Acute Types

greenish color stools in Newcastle Disease

Incubation of NDV required 6-7 days to develop a clinical signs into the host. Urate layer with greenish faeces started earlier but fully greenish color in later when viremia fully cocverd the body. Some literature suggest that gall bladder hyperplasisa by Newcastle disease induce excessive secretion of to iintestinal tract of poultry.

R

ranikhet disease in poultry.poultrymania

Respiratory difficulty & couging with jerking head due to tracheal haemorrhage & mucus filled with trachea in newcastle disease


Swallon Head

Swallon infraorbital Sinus

Egg shell-breakage,reduced size, pale color etc

Postmortem Findings

haemorrhage in trachea at NDV

haemorrhage in proventriculus at NDV

haemorrhage in intestine at NDV

haemorrhage in caecal tonsil at NDV

haemorrhage in eggs follicles at NDV

Necrotic focci at spleen in NDV

Treatment Of Newcastle Disease

To treat NDV, several things should be considered like 

Mortality: Varies from strain to strain. Like lentogenic types mortality reach to 40 %& vvNDv goes to 100%.

Egg production: Recovered flock never reach previous production level due to virus sheding in reproductive tract & destruction of ovarian follicles.

body weight: Birds can be lose body weight within a week by NDV infection either it involved Gastro-Intestinal Tract & Reproductive tract.

Time: Infected flock can be recovered with two weeks, if properly treat the flocks. It require 11days to stop complete mortality .

Cost: Sometimes it’s can be expensive due to mortality of birds & medicinal cost

This procedure protocols main two way

By Vaccinations

There are no specific treatment of NDV. Primary basic principles to treat infected flock of NDV to induced immunity of Al birds. Development of immunity depends on species to species. Laying chicken produce better immunity then broiler chickens due to muscle integraty in the field. Vaccination is required first of induction of immunity during outbreak.
Several strain are used  in the field by poultry expert with their experience.


In early, consultant suggested lassota live vaccine by eye drop/water to neutrilize the disease strain at primary stage of NDv. live lassota produce severe respiratory distress during outbreak. This is proven now this time .Please avoid lassota after primary stage of NDV.


It’s better to used lassota  killed vaccines to produce cell mediated immunity. Cell mediated immunity also depends on
Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) unit of vaccine strain. Several two vaccine strain ulstar & lassota killed have lower Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) value & produced greater immunity in short period of time. That’s are fast to reach in immune site.
It’s possible to inject the vaccine at first day infection which are minimize mortality  during out break.

By Medicine

NDv not single organim involved in this case but others organisms associated with disease like

mycoplasmosis

salmonellosis

pusterellosis

colibacillosis

which caused several lesion like

egg peritonitis,

airsaculitis,

pneumonia,

swallon head syndrom etc.

So application o antibiotics should needed to prevent these infections & save the birds.


It should be avoided to give antibiotics in orall route to reduce intake water & thus causes dehydration of birds & increased mortality.


1) Mycoplasma- Antimycoplamal drug should be used like Tiamulin, Tilmycosin, erythromycin, Azithromycin, etc. if refued water & feed intake please avoid oral antibiotics. Enter the injectable solution like ciprofloxacin 20mg/kg, Enrofloxacin 25mg/kg,Tiamulin@ 30mg/kg bwt, tylosin @10mg/kg bwt intramuscular for several days should suggest.


2) Avoid gram negative bacterial infections using bettered antibiotics which great susceptibilities to
gram negative like Florfenicol, gentamycin, colistin sulphate, neomycin etc.

If coverage out of controll, cephalosporin drug of choice in this situation like ceftriaxone @10mg/kg body weight, cefaperazone 12mg/kg, azotonium @10 mg/kg & ceftiofur 7mg/kg body weight should apply for several days.


3) In young broiler & layer, coccidiosis where involved can apply toltrazuril salt in water 

Ref: diseases of poultry,13th edition, Poultry diseases, sixth edition

Related post

Low pathogenic Avian Influenza(LPAI) in Poultry

Postmortem Findings Of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) In Poultry

Postmortem Findings Of Chicks in Coccidiosis

Fowl Typhoid: Postmortem Findings In Chicks