Newcastle disease is viral disease which caused by Newcastle disease virus under the family of paramyxoviridae. Newecastle disease may not caused by single virus but it caused by closely related group virus that form Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (AMV-1). It’s also serologically related to others Avian Paramyxivirus type 3(AMV-3). AMV-3 characterized by non segmented, single stranded RNA virus. Newcastle disease also known as Ranikhet disease in southern part of Asia.
It divided in three categories
Per acute Types
There are no clinical sign. Birds became died without clinical sign. died birds showing feverish body with congested abdominal muscles
Cyanosis of comb & wattle are common clinical signs which result from severe viremia in chicken blood where carbon di oxide pretty higher than oxygen. deoxyganate area show cyanosis by Newcastle Disease in poultry.
Incubation of NDV required 6-7 days to develop a clinical signs into the host. Urate layer with greenish faeces started earlier but fully greenish color in later when viremia fully cocverd the body. Some literature suggest that gall bladder hyperplasisa by Newcastle disease induce excessive secretion of to iintestinal tract of poultry.
Respiratory difficulty & couging with jerking head due to tracheal haemorrhage & mucus filled with trachea in newcastle disease
Swallon infraorbital Sinus
Egg shell-breakage,reduced size, pale color etc
haemorrhage in trachea at NDV
haemorrhage in proventriculus at NDV
haemorrhage in intestine at NDV
haemorrhage in caecal tonsil at NDV
haemorrhage in eggs follicles at NDV
Necrotic focci at spleen in NDV
Treatment Of Newcastle Disease
To treat NDV, several things should be considered like
Mortality: Varies from strain to strain. Like lentogenic types mortality reach to 40 %& vvNDv goes to 100%.
Egg production: Recovered flock never reach previous production level due to virus sheding in reproductive tract & destruction of ovarian follicles.
body weight: Birds can be lose body weight within a week by NDV infection either it involved Gastro-Intestinal Tract & Reproductive tract.
Time: Infected flock can be recovered with two weeks, if properly treat the flocks. It require 11days to stop complete mortality .
Cost: Sometimes it’s can be expensive due to mortality of birds & medicinal cost
This procedure protocols main two way
There are no specific treatment of NDV. Primary basic principles to treat infected flock of NDV to induced immunity of Al birds. Development of immunity depends on species to species. Laying chicken produce better immunity then broiler chickens due to muscle integraty in the field. Vaccination is required first of induction of immunity during outbreak.
Several strain are used in the field by poultry expert with their experience.
In early, consultant suggested lassota live vaccine by eye drop/water to neutrilize the disease strain at primary stage of NDv. live lassota produce severe respiratory distress during outbreak. This is proven now this time .Please avoid lassota after primary stage of NDV.
It’s better to used lassota killed vaccines to produce cell mediated immunity. Cell mediated immunity also depends on
Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) unit of vaccine strain. Several two vaccine strain ulstar & lassota killed have lower Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) value & produced greater immunity in short period of time. That’s are fast to reach in immune site.
It’s possible to inject the vaccine at first day infection which are minimize mortality during out break.
NDv not single organim involved in this case but others organisms associated with disease like
which caused several lesion like
swallon head syndrom etc.
So application o antibiotics should needed to prevent these infections & save the birds.
It should be avoided to give antibiotics in orall route to reduce intake water & thus causes dehydration of birds & increased mortality.
1) Mycoplasma- Antimycoplamal drug should be used like Tiamulin, Tilmycosin, erythromycin, Azithromycin, etc. if refued water & feed intake please avoid oral antibiotics. Enter the injectable solution like ciprofloxacin 20mg/kg, Enrofloxacin 25mg/kg,Tiamulin@ 30mg/kg bwt, tylosin @10mg/kg bwt intramuscular for several days should suggest.
2) Avoid gram negative bacterial infections using bettered antibiotics which great susceptibilities to
gram negative like Florfenicol, gentamycin, colistin sulphate, neomycin etc.
If coverage out of controll, cephalosporin drug of choice in this situation like ceftriaxone @10mg/kg body weight, cefaperazone 12mg/kg, azotonium @10 mg/kg & ceftiofur 7mg/kg body weight should apply for several days.
3) In young broiler & layer, coccidiosis where involved can apply toltrazuril salt in water
Ref: diseases of poultry,13th edition, Poultry diseases, sixth edition