Toltrazuril is a synthetic broad-spectrum anticoccidial & antiprotozoal properties under the class of Triazinenitrione derivatives used for coccidiosis in poultry. It is a water-soluble drug used in poultry & other species. Sometimes which dilution may precipitate dilution which more concentrated the 1:1000 (1 ml toltrazuril 2.5% to 1ml drinking water) may result in precipitation.
Mode of Action
It inhibits nuclear division & mitochondrial activity. It damages the wall forming bodies of microgametes. which causes severe vacuolization by inflation of the endoplasmic reticulum in all intracellular development stages of Eimeria spp.
It is a coccidioccidal, potent & active against developing first & second-generation schizont and gametes of pyrogenic Emeria spp in various birds. For instance turkey, geese, ducks & others intracellularly & extracellularly. It also exhibits long residual activity & may protect poultry from 2 weeks.
It is used for the control & treatment of coccidiosis in various species of poultry. It may be medicated intermittently instead of conventional continuous medication in poultry.
The recommended dose of Toltrazuril is 7-100 mg/kg may well tolerable in poultry. 7mg/kg given for 2 consecutive days enough to kill all stages of Emeria in poultry.
It is slowly but extensively absorbed in the intestine of poultry. Peak plasma concentration is attained within 120 hours. Having a liquid form, there is an absorption rate equal to 50% or more in poultry.
Toltrazuril is attained high concentration in the liver, muscles & fats in poultry.
196 hours in poultry.
2mcg/ka ( acceptable daily intake) in poultry.
Meat & eggs 19 days in poultry.
Routes of excretion
Mostly, It is excreted via Urine & feces in poultry.
Toxicity & adverse effects
Toltrazuril is well tolerated in poultry. Toxicity became zero at advice dosages. However, it can be tolerated up to 10 times the recommended dosage. in addition, It is useless to apply overdose because advise dose is enough to kill all types of coccidia except Emeria acervulina. Emeria acervulina causes Indigestion in poultry in some instances.
There are references has known to hypersensitivity in poultry. but, the initial stage of applying to show any types of abnormalities. stop the drugs but it is rare in the field.
Toltrazuril is no recommendation for the prevention of coccidiosis in broiler due to cause heavy weight loss. Please avoid heavy doses at normal birds. But, at disease condition, You can apply more than 5 times than recommended dose. Do not use layer birds which reduced egg production in poultry.
There is a cross-resistance between Toltrazuril & diclazuril in poultry. it can be used any type of drugs initially.
There are two forms 2.5% & 5% are available in the markets which provide via drinking water in poultry.
Ramzan, Dvm, Poultry Veterinarian
2. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 10th Edition
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