Toltrazuril

Toltrazuril in poultry

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Toltrazuril

Toltrazuril is a synthetic broad-spectrum anticoccidial & antiprotozoal properties under the class of Triazinenitrione derivatives used for coccidiosis in poultry. It is a water-soluble drug used in poultry & other species. Sometimes which dilution may precipitate dilution which more concentrated the 1:1000 (1 ml toltrazuril 2.5% to 1ml drinking water) may result in precipitation.

Mode of Action

It inhibits nuclear division & mitochondrial activity. It damages the wall forming bodies of microgametes. by which cause severe vacuolization by inflation of the endoplasmic reticulum in all intracellular development stages of Emeria spp.

Pharmacologic action

It is a coccidioccidal, potent &  active against developing first & second generation schizont and gametes of pyrogenic Emeria spp in various birds. For instance turkey, geese, ducks & others intracellularly & extracellularly. It also exhibits long residual activity & may protect poultry from 2 weeks.

Indication

It is used for the control & treatment of coccidiosis in various species of poultry. It may be medicated intermittently instead of conventional continuous medication in poultry.

Dosages

The recommended dose of Toltrazuril is 7-100 mg/kg may well tolerable in poultry. 7mg/kg given for 2 consecutive days enough to kill all stages of Emeria in poultry.

Absorption

It is slowly but extensively absorbed the intestine of poultry. Peak plasma concentration is attained within 120 hours. Having a liquid form, there is an absorption rate equal to 50% or more in poultry.

Metabolism

Toltrazuril is degraded in Toltrazuril sulfone which is persistent & mobile in groundwater.

Distribution

Toltrazuril is attained high concentration in liver, muscles & fats in poultry.

Plasma half-life

196 hours in poultry.

Residual limit

2mcg/ka ( acceptable daily intake) in poultry.

Withdrawal period:

Meat & eggs 19 days in poultry.

Routes of excretion

Mostly, It is excreted via Urine & feces in poultry.

Toxicity & adverse effects

Toltrazuril is well tolerated in poultry. Toxicity became zero at advice dosages. However, it can be tolerated up to 10 times the recommended dosage. in addition, It is useless to apply overdose because advise dose is enough to killed all types of coccidia except Emeria acervulina. Emeria acervulina causes Indigestion in poultry in some instances.

See Also- Indigestion in poultry

Contraindication

There are references has known to hypersensitivity in poultry. but, the initial stage of applying to show any types of abnormalities. stop the drugs but it is rare in the field.

Precaution

Toltrazuril is no recommendation for the prevention of coccidiosis in broiler due to cause heavy weight loss. Please avoid heavy doses at normal birds. But, at disease condition, You can apply more than 5 times than recommended dose. Do not use layer birds which reduced egg production in poultry.

Drug interaction

There is a cross-resistance between Toltrazuril & diclazuril in poultry. it can be used any type of drugs initially.

Formulation

There are two forms 2.5% & 5% are available in the markets which provide via drinking water in poultry.

Ramzan, Dvm, Poultry Veterinarian

Related Post

Coccidiosis in chicken

References

1. Handbook+of+Veterinary+Pharmacology

2. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 10th Edition

Poultry Diseases, 6th edition

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