Water Requirement for Broiler
Water is an important factor for Broiler chicken. As a faster growth within a short time, the water requirement for Broiler chicken is very crucial. The general function of water in broiler and other living organisms is to transport Oxygen, nutrients, drugs vaccines, and other physiologic activities to maintain proper health conditions.
Standard water Requirement
A broiler will drink approx. 2 liters of water for every kilogram of feed consumed. This means that it takes around 3. 5 liters of water for every kilogram of bird grown, that is if an average lifetime feed conversion of 1. 75 is assumed. When broilers are heat stressed, they increase the consumption of water in an effort to cool down.
Water must be free from infectious pathogens (such as virus, bacteria, fungus, protozoa, etc), heavy metals ( Na, K, iron, P, CA, etc), soil, urine, fecal material, etc. water deprivation may lead to coccidiosis.
Maintaining Water quality
Following steps must be conducted to ensure standard water quality, hygienic, pathogen-free, dust, and other particles:
Wash and disinfect chick drinkers daily. Use a reliable water sanitizer like chlorine to control disease-causing organisms in the water. Ensure the drinkers are filled with fresh water after washing and never allow the drinkers to go dry.
Distribute drinkers evenly throughout the whole house, alternating them with the feeders so that they are easily accessible to all birds. The furthest distance to the next waterer or drinker should be 1.5 meters. Provide one chick fount for 75 chicks during the first week and gradually replace them with the regular drinkers. Always adjust the drinkers and feeders levels as the birds grow to ensure that the equipment is always slightly above the level of the birds’ backs to minimize spillage.
Timing of water
It is good practice to supply water at a proper time which depends on session to season.
In summer, The frequency of water supplying with time must be increased due to hot weather conditions. Normally, birds prefer to consume water at room temperature. If the temperature increase, birds will refuse to take water frequently which is causing digestive tract disturbances.
In winter, trying to provide lukewarm water with normal water for better consumption.
It is better to provide the water thrice daily and 5-6 times in the summer season.
Water Quality Standards For Broiler Chickens
|1000-2000||Satisfactory- possible laxative effect|
|Over 3000||Unacceptable: Mortality, laxative effect, wet droppings, reduced water intake, poor growth|
|Hardness||less than 100 (soft)||Good|
|Over 100 ( Hard)||Satisfactory: Possible interference with the effectiveness of disinfectants and medications|
|pH||6.5-8.5||Acceptable range. May require acid/base treatment outside of this range|
|Sulfates||Less than 300||Usually no problem, but levels over 50ppm may have a laxative effect if magnesium and chloride are high|
|Over 300||Laxative effect|
|Over 500||Laxative effect. May interfere with copper absorption, additive laxative effect with high chloride|
|Chloride||Less than 300||Not a problem but may exacerbate laxative effect of sodium or sulfate|
|500||Maximum desired level|
|Over 500||Laxative effect, wet droppings, reduced feed intake, increased water consumption|
|Sodium||50-300||Acceptable range. May cause loose droppings if sulfates are over 50ppm and chloride is over 14ppm.|
|Potassium||Less than 500||Generally not a problem, but laxative effect may be additive with sodium level|
|Over 500||Laxative effect|
|Magnesium||Less than 200||Generally not a problem, but if sulfates are higher than 500ppm there may be a laxative effect|
|Calcium||Over 200||Laxative effect|
|600||Maximum desired level|
|Iron||Less than 0.3||Acceptable|
|Over 0.3||Unacceptable. Bad taste and smell. Encourages bacterial growth|
|Fluoride||Over 40||Unacceptable. Causes soft bones.|
|Nitrate Nitrogen||10||Maximum acceptable level.|